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Статья опубликована в рамках: CLXXVII Международной научно-практической конференции «Научное сообщество студентов: МЕЖДИСЦИПЛИНАРНЫЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ» (Россия, г. Новосибирск, 23 ноября 2023 г.)

Наука: Педагогика

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Библиографическое описание:
Seisenbekkyzy A., Shayakhmetov A.M., Orazbay M. [и др.] AN ANALYTICAL REVIEW: NUMERICAL AND NON-NUMERICAL ASSESSMENT METHODS // Научное сообщество студентов: МЕЖДИСЦИПЛИНАРНЫЕ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ: сб. ст. по мат. CLXXVII междунар. студ. науч.-практ. конф. № 22(176). URL: https://sibac.info/archive/meghdis/22(176).pdf (дата обращения: 29.11.2023)
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Seisenbekkyzy Arailym

Student, Department of Applied Data Analytics, Astana IT University,

Kazakhstan, Astana

Shayakhmetov Alparslan Maxat

Student, Department of Applied Data Analytics, Astana IT University,

Kazakhstan, Astana

Orazbay Mukhtar

Student, Department of Applied Data Analytics, Astana IT University,

Kazakhstan, Astana

Aisagaliyev Sultan

Student, Department of Applied Data Analytics, Astana IT University,

Kazakhstan, Astana


This comprehensive analytical review critically examines the paradigms of knowledge assessment in education, focusing on the dichotomy between numerical (quantitative) and non-numerical (qualitative) evaluation methods. The exploration encompasses the advantages and limitations of each approach, shedding light on their impact on student motivation, engagement, and overall learning outcomes. Through a comparative lens, the study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative and qualitative assessment, emphasizing the need for a balanced integration. The conclusion advocates for a synergistic relationship between these methodologies, recognizing their unique contributions to a holistic understanding of student progress and academic achievement.


Keywords: assessment, assessment methods, quantitative evaluation, qualitative evaluation, higher education.


1. Introduction

In the context of an ever-evolving educational landscape, where the assessment of student knowledge plays a pivotal role, this review embarks on a meticulous exploration of the dynamics surrounding knowledge assessment methodologies. As emphasized by Pereira et al. in their meta-analytic review, the evolving nature of educational practices prompts a reevaluation of traditional assessment models [15]. This paper specifically delves into the dichotomy between quantitative and qualitative approaches, seeking to provide educators, researchers, and policymakers with nuanced insights.

Quantitative assessment, rooted in numerical data and statistical analysis, has been a cornerstone of educational evaluation. Standardized testing, numerical scoring, and grade point averages have provided a structured and objective lens for gauging student performance, as noted by Flores et al. [8]. However, as the educational landscape shifts, qualitative assessment, characterized by descriptive analysis and interpretation, emerges as a compelling alternative. Pereira et al. highlight the depth of understanding that qualitative methods offer, surpassing the confines of performance data and delving into the intricacies of motivation, strategies, and individual learning styles [15].

The urgency of this exploration is underscored by the ongoing discourse in educational psychology, as exemplified by Struyven et al. and their insights into higher-order thinking skills [19]. The need to navigate this discourse with a focus on the advantages and limitations of each methodology becomes imperative for informed decision-making. Moreover, the integration of quantitative and qualitative approaches gains significance not only in academic settings but also in shaping future educational policies.

As we traverse the realms of academic evaluation, the incorporation of relevant references and static data becomes crucial. This review aims to bridge the theoretical foundations with empirical evidence, providing a comprehensive understanding of the intricacies surrounding knowledge assessment methodologies. In doing so, the goal is to contribute to the ongoing dialogue on effective and equitable educational practices, acknowledging the multifaceted nature of student learning and progress.

2. Methodologies for knowledge assessment

In education, there are two main types of assessment methods: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative assessment methods use numbers and statistical analysis to measure student achievement. Examples of quantitative assessment methods include tests, exams, quizzes, and other types of assignments that have unambiguous answers. Quantitative assessment methods are objective, reliable, and comparable, meaning that the assessment results do not depend on the teacher's opinion or interpretation, and the results can be reproduced and compared to the results of other students. Quantitative assessment methods are a valuable tool for teachers to gather information on student achievement, but it is important to consider the potential psychological impact of these methods on students.

Quantitative assessment methods are based on the use of numbers and statistical analysis to measure student achievement. Examples of quantitative assessment methods include tests, exams, quizzes, and other types of assignments that have unambiguous answers. Quantitative assessment methods can be used to measure a wide range of student knowledge and skills, including factual knowledge, problem-solving skills, and critical thinking skills.

Quantitative assessment methods are often used in standardized testing, which allows for the comparison of student performance across different schools and districts. However, quantitative assessment methods can also be used in the classroom to assess student learning on a more specific basis. For example, a teacher might give a test on a specific unit of instruction or create a quiz to assess student understanding of a concept.

Qualitative assessment methods are based on the descriptive analysis and interpretation of data. They include portfolios, self-assessments, observations, interviews, and other types of assignments that allow for the assessment of student knowledge, skills, and abilities in a more complex and holistic manner. Qualitative assessment methods can be used to assess a wide range of student learning outcomes, including student creativity, critical thinking skills, and problem-solving skills.

Qualitative assessment methods are often used in conjunction with quantitative assessment methods to provide a more complete picture of student learning. For example, a teacher might give a test on a specific unit of instruction and require students to complete a portfolio that demonstrates their learning on that unit. The portfolio might include student work samples, reflections, and other evidence of learning.

Quantitative and qualitative assessment methods are both important tools for teachers to use to assess student learning. Quantitative assessment methods are useful for measuring student achievement on specific topics and skills. Qualitative assessment methods are useful for assessing student learning more holistically. The best assessment method to use will depend on the specific learning objectives of the lesson or unit. Ideally, teachers will use a combination of quantitative and qualitative assessment methods to obtain the most complete and reliable information about student progress.

2.1. Method 1: Quantitative evaluation

Quantitative methods of assessment in schools are essential tools for measuring students' learning progress and achievement systematically and objectively. These methods rely on numerical data and statistical analysis to evaluate students' performance, and they play a significant role in the education system. Quantitative grades play a significant role in college admissions, scholarship eligibility, and future career opportunities. Many institutions and employers use GPAs as a screening tool. Numerical grades are a clear and straightforward way to communicate students' performance to parents and students [4]. They provide a common language for discussing academic achievements. Here is an overview of quantitative assessment methods in schools:

Standardized Testing: Standardized tests are widely used to assess students' knowledge and skills. These tests are administered under uniform conditions, and the results are scored objectively. Examples include the SAT, ACT, and various state assessments. Standardized tests provide a common benchmark for comparing student performance [3].

Numerical Scoring: Assigning numerical scores to various types of assessments, such as quizzes, exams, and homework, allows for the quantification of student performance. Grading rubrics can help maintain consistency and objectivity in scoring.

Percentage-Based Grading: Students' overall performance is often represented as a percentage based on the number of correct answers or points earned in various assessments. This quantitative representation makes it easy to compare students' achievements.

Grade Point Average (GPA): A cumulative GPA is a quantitative measure of a student's academic performance. It is calculated by assigning a numerical value to each letter grade (e.g., A = 4.0, B = 3.0) and then averaging these values [5, p. 602].

Discretionary grading systems have several advantages and disadvantages. The paragraph will explore them and provide arguments. These systems grant educators the flexibility to consider diverse factors beyond raw test scores, incorporating increasing motivation, and measuring students' knowledge level and competition sense. Nevertheless, there are some drawbacks such as anxiety, and grade-oriented learning. The paragraph will explore them and provide arguments.

2.1.1. Advantages of quantitative evaluation

As it comes to the advantages, firstly, numerical grading improves academic performance. The use of discretionary grading has the potential to boost students' motivation to excel academically. Studies have confirmed the connections between grades and immediate learning outcomes, as well as between grades and external motivation, which is motivation driven by external sources rather than internal factors. Students might tend to treat discerning or selective grading with greater importance. Anticipating a grade can enhance students' self-assurance not just in providing correct responses but also in comprehending incorrect ones. Demonstrating improvement through a better grade can contribute to students feeling a sense of contentment and accomplishment [12, p. 187]. Therefore, students tend to take selective grading seriously, and the anticipation of grades boosts their confidence in both correct and incorrect answers. Achieving higher grades fosters satisfaction and a sense of accomplishment, highlighting the advantages of thoughtful grading methods in education.

Secondly, giving grades is related to increasing students’ motivation to study hard. Grades can foster autonomous motivation when students perceive them as informative feedback for improving their competence [4]. According to Ratelle et al, with greater autonomy granted to undergraduate students in selecting majors, scheduling, and making university attendance decisions, university grades can bolster autonomous motivation by offering competence-enhancing insights. This information aids students in making personally meaningful choices, such as study methods and subject selection, aligned with their self-endorsed goals or career aspirations.

Additionally, since many universities have minimum GPA or entry requirements, the students admitted are often high-performing individuals who may be more resistant to the detrimental impact of grades on autonomous academic motivation [5, p. 604]. Thus, the provision of grades not only serves to enhance students' motivation to study diligently but also contributes to the cultivation of autonomous motivation, enabling students to make informed, self-endorsed choices regarding their academic pursuits and career aspirations, particularly in cases where high-achieving students are admitted to universities with stringent GPA or entry requirements.

2.1.2. Limitations of quantitative evaluation

On the other hand, there are some drawbacks of a discretionary grading system, such as increasing the value of scores rather than the learning process. Research indicates that the use of public grading systems tends to foster competitiveness and prioritize performance over learning, potentially resulting in mental health issues like anxiety, stress, and diminished self-esteem [17]. For instance, a study revealed that disclosing grades in front of peers can strain the student-teacher relationship, leading to tension, reduced trust, and diminished respect, especially when lower grades are involved [5, p. 607]. In a study titled "Why grades lead to performance-avoidance goals: The mediating role of autonomous motivation," published in the Journal of Educational Psychology, Pulfrey, Buchs, and Butera discovered that students exposed to public grading are more prone to experiencing anxiety, pressure, and decreased self-esteem compared to those with private grades [16]. While quantitative assessment methods have their merits, the study suggests that a more nuanced approach, including private feedback and a focus on fostering autonomous motivation, may contribute to a healthier and more positive learning environment. This approach could help students feel less anxious and more empowered to learn and grow.

Furthermore, public grading systems can foster a competitive atmosphere among students, potentially stifling creativity, and collaboration. Consequently, this places additional stress on students, shifting their focus away from learning and toward outperforming their peers. As outlined by Kohn, grades tend to diminish students' genuine enthusiasm for the learning process [10]. In other words, students often concentrate on preparing for assessments rather than investing effort in areas that could help them reach their full potential. Ryan and Deci have contended that external rewards can redirect students' motivation from internal, inherent factors to external influences [6]. The authors propose that intrinsic motivation, originating from personal interests and desires, proves to be more advantageous for sustained commitment and academic success when compared to extrinsic motivation, which is derived from external factors such as grades.

2.2. Method 2: Qualitative evaluation

In higher education, assessing student performance is a multifaceted endeavor, and achieving a comprehensive understanding requires a two-pronged approach. While quantitative assessment methods, characterized by numerical data and standardized testing, play a pivotal role in education, qualitative assessment brings a unique dimension to the table, focusing on the depth of learning experiences, student engagement, and holistic growth.

In the pursuit of understanding student performance in the educational landscape, qualitative assessment emerges as the compass navigating the uncharted waters of learning experiences, student engagement, and holistic growth. As outlined by Patton, this method encompasses in-depth, open-ended interviews; direct observation; and scrutiny of written documents, offering a nuanced exploration beyond numerical metrics. It transforms the evaluator into a participant observer, actively engaging with program activities and meticulously analyzing records to unveil the hidden facets of the educational experience [14].

Qualitative assessment data emerges as raw, descriptive information about programs and the individuals involved. The evaluator becomes a participant observer, making direct observations of program activities and interacting with participants and staff to glean their insights and experiences. This human-centric approach often involves a personal touch, such as engaging actively in program activities, to grasp the holistic essence of the educational journey. Additionally, meticulous scrutiny of records and documents unveils hidden facets of the educational experience.

The ensuing data from interviews, observations, and documents go through content analysis, an intricate process that organizes them into primary themes, categories, and illustrative case examples. These narratives provide a panoramic view of the educational landscape, where students' journeys unfold.

This human-centric approach is not merely a collection of data, it is a journey. The resulting qualitative data, rich in descriptive information, undergoes content analysis and a meticulous process of organizing narratives into primary themes, categories, and illustrative case examples. These narratives serve as windows into the educational landscape, capturing the essence of students' journeys. Ghislandi reminds us that in the history of quality assessment, efforts to simplify complexity into measurable parameters often overshadow the profound insights that emerge from the qualitative realm [9, p. 67]. It's a reminder not to overlook what truly matters in the intricate tapestry of education.

The decision to embrace qualitative assessment goes beyond methodological considerations; it reflects a commitment to understanding the complexities that define the educational experience. It invites educators and evaluators to become participant observers, actively engaging with the educational journey rather than reducing it to numerical abstractions. In this narrative-driven approach, the assessment becomes a story one that captures the essence of each student's unique path and the broader tapestry of education itself.

2.2.1. Advantages of qualitative evaluation

In the dynamic realm of education, the spotlight is shifting from the traditional focus on quantitative approaches to an exploration of the unique advantages offered by qualitative evaluation methods. This shift is not merely methodological; it marks a profound transformation towards a more holistic and human-centered approach to education. As Laurillard aptly puts it, qualitative methods provide a deep understanding of how students learn, surpassing the confines of performance data and delving into the intricacies of motivation, strategies, and individual learning styles [11].

Transitioning from the broader perspective illuminates the pedagogical advantages of qualitative evaluation. Through interviews, observations, and active engagement, educators gain a nuanced understanding of the learning process. This goes beyond surface-level assessments, enabling tailored teaching approaches that adapt instruction to individual needs. As Falchikov emphasizes, this personalized approach not only enhances engagement but also transforms students into active participants in their unique learning journey [7]. Furthermore, qualitative data serves as a guiding force in shaping curriculum design, identifying strengths, and weaknesses to create a curriculum that not only imparts knowledge but also nurtures a genuine love for learning.

Delving into the psychological realm, Buck sheds light on qualitative assessment as a catalyst for self-awareness and empowerment [3]. By encouraging reflective practices, students become attuned to their strengths and areas for improvement. This process extends beyond academic performance, fostering goal-setting and active participation in their educational journey. The emphasis on qualitative assessment aligns with principles of inclusion and equity, recognizing diverse needs and backgrounds [2, p. 32]. This empowerment not only enriches psychological well-being but also contributes to creating inclusive and student-centered learning environments.

In conclusion, the advantages of qualitative evaluations in education are multifaceted, influencing pedagogical and psychological dimensions. From personalized teaching approaches that consider individual learning styles to fostering self-awareness and empowerment, qualitative methods play a pivotal role in shaping an inclusive and effective educational landscape. As we navigate the complexities of education, the incorporation of qualitative assessment reaffirms the human element in learning, recognizing, and celebrating the unique story of each student.

2.2.2. Limitations of qualitative evaluation

In the intricate landscape of education, the integration of qualitative evaluation methods unveils a realm of unique insights, yet it is imperative to confront the inherent limitations that accompany these valuable perspectives. Recognizing and understanding these challenges becomes paramount for cultivating a comprehensive and balanced approach to educational practices.

Transitioning to the pedagogical dimensions, the complexity of data analysis emerges as a significant hurdle in qualitative evaluation. As opposed to the straightforward numerical values in quantitative methods, the richness of qualitative data demands extensive time, expertise, and resources for meaningful interpretation. The words of Pagani and Seghieri resonate, pointing to the diverse sources, such as interviews and observations, that researchers navigate, making the analysis a laborious process [13]. This intricate journey through varied data sources can potentially impede the swift and efficient assessment required in some educational settings.

Delving into the psychological implications, subjectivity and bias become notable challenges in qualitative assessment. Spencer and Schmelkin underscore the vulnerability of interpretations to variations based on the evaluator's perspective and experiences [18]. This inherent subjectivity introduces an element of bias that poses a risk to the validity and reliability of the findings. The psychological impact extends beyond the data itself, influencing the lens through which educational experiences are interpreted and, subsequently, the decisions made based on these interpretations. Ethical considerations also loom in qualitative assessment, particularly when delving into sensitive topics or personal experiences. Protecting the confidentiality and well-being of participants becomes a paramount concern, requiring researchers to navigate these ethical considerations with care.

In conclusion, while qualitative evaluation offers invaluable insights into education, it is crucial to confront the challenges it brings to the forefront. The intricacies of data analysis, the subjective nature of interpretations, limited generalizability, and ethical considerations necessitate careful navigation. Acknowledging these limitations ensures a more holistic and informed educational approach, striking a delicate balance between the nuanced insights qualitative methods provide and the practical constraints they impose. As educators and researchers continue to explore the potential of qualitative evaluation, this awareness becomes a compass guiding the integration of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in the pursuit of a comprehensive understanding of educational practices.

3. Comparative examination of assessment approaches

Assessment is an essential part of the teaching-learning process. It allows teachers to gather information about student learning, identify areas where students need additional support, and provide feedback to help students improve. There are a variety of assessment approaches that teachers can use, each with its strengths and weaknesses.

Quantitative assessment approaches use numbers and statistical analysis to measure student achievement. Examples of quantitative assessment approaches include tests, exams, quizzes, and other types of assignments that have unambiguous answers. Quantitative assessment approaches are relatively objective and easy to score, making them well-suited for large-scale assessments. However, quantitative assessment approaches can be reductive, meaning that they may not fully capture the complexity of student learning. Additionally, quantitative assessment approaches can be stressful for students, especially if they are high stakes.

Qualitative assessment approaches focus on the descriptive analysis and interpretation of data. Examples of qualitative assessment approaches include portfolios, self-assessments, observations, and interviews. Qualitative assessment approaches are more holistic than quantitative assessment approaches, meaning that they consider a wider range of student learning outcomes. Qualitative assessment approaches can also be less stressful for students, as they are often more authentic and student-centered. However, qualitative assessment approaches can be more subjective and difficult to score than quantitative assessment approaches. The Table 1 presents the key differences between these two approaches.

Table 1.

Comparison table


Quantitative assessment

Qualitative assessment


More objective

More subjective


More reliable

Less reliable


Easier to compare

More difficult to compare


Less comprehensive

More comprehensive


Less holistic

More holistic


Less student-centered

More student-centered


It can be more stressful for students

It can be less stressful for students


Both quantitative and qualitative assessment approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. The best assessment approach to use will depend on the specific learning objectives of the lesson or unit. Ideally, teachers will use a combination of quantitative and qualitative assessment approaches to obtain the most complete and reliable information about student progress.

In addition to the factors listed above, teachers should also consider the following when choosing an assessment approach: Younger students may benefit from more concrete and structured assessment approaches, while older students may be ready for more abstract and open-ended assessments. Some students may learn best through hands-on activities and projects, while others may prefer more traditional paper-and-pencil assessments. Some assessment approaches, such as standardized tests, can be expensive and time-consuming to administer and score. Other assessment approaches, such as self-assessments and observations, can be more cost-effective and time efficient.

By carefully considering the learning objectives, students' needs, and available resources, teachers can select the most appropriate assessment approaches for their students. This ensures that all students have an opportunity to demonstrate their learning and grow as learners, leading to a more complete and accurate understanding of student learning and progress. Additionally, empowering students to take ownership of their own learning and development, providing all students with multiple pathways to success, creating a more inclusive and equitable learning environment for all students, and promoting a culture of assessment for learning rather than assessment of learning can all be achieved through the careful selection of assessment approaches.

4. Conclusion

Navigating the dynamic landscape of higher education sparks a continuous debate between the merits of quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods. These approaches, each with their unique strengths and limitations, contribute diverse perspectives to the understanding of student performance and broader educational experience.

Quantitative evaluation, grounded in numerical data and statistical analysis, provides a structured and objective lens for assessing students. Standardized testing, numerical scoring, and grade point averages offer clarity in academic achievement, influencing pivotal decisions such as college admissions and scholarship eligibility. In contrast, qualitative evaluation methods, utilizing in-depth interviews, direct observations, and content analysis, unravel the depth and richness of the student experience. Beyond numeric grades, qualitative assessment explores nuances like student engagement, critical thinking, creativity, and self-awareness, offering a holistic perspective.

While quantitative methods navigate the structured terrain of grades and numerical scores, qualitative methods venture into intricate landscapes of personal growth, motivation, and human experience. The insights gained from these methods become a narrative story behind the grades and experiences shaping academic journeys. Subjectivity and bias become potential pitfalls in qualitative assessment, introducing variations based on the evaluator's perspective and experiences, influencing the validity and reliability of the findings. Ethical considerations loom when exploring sensitive topics or personal experiences, demanding careful navigation to protect the confidentiality and well-being of participants.

In conclusion, the future of evaluation in higher education hinges on recognizing the symbiotic relationship between quantitative and qualitative methods. While quantitative methods provide necessary benchmarks and efficiency, their integration with qualitative methods unveils narratives stories that transcend grades and reveal the psychosocial dimensions of learning. This harmonious balance propels us towards a more inclusive and informed educational landscape, celebrating both the achievements and transformative stories within the venerable halls of academia.



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