Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 2(88)
Рубрика журнала: Филология
LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL INTERPRETATION OF VOCABULARY RELATED TO WALES
ЛИНГВОКУЛЬТУРОВЕДЧЕСКАЯ ИНТЕРПРЕТАЦИЯ ЛЕКСИКИ, ОТНОСЯЩЕЙСЯ К УЭЛЬСУ
Гайнутдинова Рената Рашитовна
cтудент, факультет иностранных языков, Елабужский институт Казанского Федерального Университета,
РФ, г. Елабуга
Поспелова Надежда Владимировна
канд. филол.наук., доц., Елабужский институт Казанского Федерального Университета
РФ, г. Елабуга
The article describes the lexical area of the lexical unit “Eisteddfod”. It deals with cultural aspect of such country as Wales. The purpose of the article is to give the reader some information revealing the background of “Eisteddfod” – one of the most popular events in Wales. The work goes on to say that such unique lexical unit which is territorially determined implies a wide use of vocabulary just to describe the “Eisteddfod”. That is why there is used some analyses to explore this unit like definitional analysis, etymological analysis, semantization, linguistic and cultural interpretation. They promote to absorb a wide range of lexical units reflecting the “Eisteddfod” and distinguish the relations between them according to classifications of semes types. Further, the following conclusion is drawn that the lexical unit “Eisteddfod” has all rights to build up a hierarchy of words relating to it.
Статья посвящена вопросам исследования лексической единицы «Eisteddfod», которая занимает особое место в лингвокультуре Уэльса. «Eisteddfod» является одним из самых популярных фестивалей, проводимых в Уэльсе. Цель статьи заключается в изучении специфики лексической единицы «Eisteddfod», которая является территориально и культурно детерминированной, и ее связи в спектре языковых единиц, обусловленных самобытностью валлийской культуры. В работе выполнены лингвокультуроведческий, дефиниционный и этимологический анализы, семантизация, лингвокультурная интерперетация. Исследование показало, что «Eisteddfod» имеет иерархическую структуру сем, которые обладают взаимозависимыми отношениями между собой в соответствии с классификацией типов сем (архисема, дифференциальная сема, потенциальная сема и окказиональная сема). Результаты анализа расширяют знания о содержании языковой единицы «Eisteddfod».
Keywords: Wales, Eisteddfod, cultural analyses, etymology, Gorsedd.
Ключевые слова: валлийская культура, Eisteddfod, лингвокультуроведческий анализ, этимология, архисема.
The modern world has become a single economic and informational space, in which, fortunately, interest to various national-ethnic and cultural values has not been lost. Nowadays much attention is paid to the study of the culture of large English-speaking countries and their characteristics, but regions with a small population also remain in the focus of research and study of their cultural aspects. [Osipova, Pospelova, 2009, p.82; Ogneva, 2012, p. 69].
Wales is a country with a rich history. Moreover, it is interesting because of the Welsh specific culture. It managed to preserve her originality, despite the influence of the ancient Roman invaders. Wales is essentially distinguished by its holidays, traditions, customs and music. Gifted Welsh organize creative festivals and competitions, in which Eisteddfod takes a special place.
The relevance of the work is determined by the fact that such a lexical unit refers to a unique cultural event of a particular region, i.e. Wales, and acquires a special imagery in Welsh linguistic culture. The analysis of this unit promotes building a full-fledged judgment of the "Eisteddfod".
The purpose of the work is a linguistic and cultural analysis of the lexical unit “Eisteddfod” in modern English.
The research methods were the following: definitional analysis, etymological analysis, semantization, linguistic and cultural interpretation.
The first stage of the research is the etymological analysis of the indicated lexical unit. The origins of the "Eisteddfod" ascend to the tradition of medieval bard meetings that existed since about the 7th century AD. The definition of “eisteddfod” itself originates from the Welsh verb “to sit,” which in the 8th century meant “dwelling”.
In the authoritative lexicographical dictionaries it is indicated that the first part of the lexical unit “Eisteddfod” comes from “eistedd”, which is translated from Welsh as “sit”, and the second - “bod” as “to be, is” [Oxford English Dictionary; Klein Ernest, A Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary].
The second stage of the interpretation of the “the Eisteddfod” is the modeling its historical portrait. The impressive history of the original Welsh festival begins with bard meetings held since the 7th century AD. Winners in the competitions were awarded with a special crown and a chair at the Lord's table. Officially, the beginning of the "Eisteddfod" dates back to 1176, when Lord Rhys called together cultural figures from all over the world to Cardigan Castle. The Welsh also actively participated in the event. At this gathering, competitions were held between the bards and the best was awarded a place of honor at the feast.
However, the history of Esteddfod doesn’t end up here. In 16th century Elizabeth I of England examined the nature of gatherings and licenced them to improve the quality of standards of performances. Unfortunately, further the interest to the art and culture of Wales fell, and this led to the negative solutions. Firstly, it degraded the quality of the culture. Secondly, it became more informal. The poets met in pubs, open spaces and set there their assemblies of rhymers.
The Eisteddfod developed into a recognizable festival only in the 18th and 19th centuries. Here it is necessary to name a man, Iolo Morganwg, who founded new Eisteddfod - Gorsedd of the Bards of the Isle of Britain and replaced the old one. And the first meeting of Gorsedd was held in London.
Welsh people were displeased because of the loosing Eisteddfod as their national unique and specific event. That is why in 1858 organized The National Eisteddfod of Wales with Gorsedd in Llangollen,that was definitely a significant event. After it the National Council was created.
Next, we consider the value of the unit under study in modern English. Currently, Eisteddfod is Welsh music and literary festivals with elements of competition, where choirs, singing groups, folk dancers and other groups from all over the world come to share their national folk traditions.
Musical and literary competitions are the highlight of the program during the festival. The Welsh contestants are awarded in such nominations as the Crowning of the Bard, the Awarding of the Prose Medal and the Chairing of the Bard. Besides, along with such famous competitions, we must not forget about the enchanting performance as Flower and Fields Dance by children during the Gorsedd Ceremonies of Eisteddfod itself.
At the same time the other interesting point relating to the festival is maes yr Eisteddfod, that is to say Eisteddfod Field. This is where different stalls of music, crafts, books and food are located. The maes is naturally divided in several sections. Among them there pavilions of literature, science and technology work, pavilions of live music and “teacher's” pavilions for those who want to learn Welsh, are organized.
The next stage of the research is a definitional analysis which aim is to identify the common and distinctive characteristics of the lexical unit “Eisteddfod” with further component analysis.
“Eisteddfod” is: a meeting in the United States of America, musicians, etc., at 19th-cent. revival of an old welsh custom. [Webster’s Dictionary]; Welsh poets, singers and musicians [Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture]; a competitive festival of music and poetry in the Wales. [Oxford English dictionary]; an event in wales at singles, poetry, and music. [Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English]; a festival of welsh culture with music, singing, and poetry. [Macmillan Dictionary]; This is where the Royal National Eisteddfods are held. [Collins English Dictionary].
Based on the above definitions and the historical portrait of the lexical unit “Eisteddfod”, we can classify this vocabulary as follows.
According to the classification of G.V. Stepanova and A.N, Shramm the archeseme describing this lexical unit “Eisteddfod” is “attitude to Welsh culture”. Further, among the differential semes we can distinguish festival, performance and competition. The context semes are defined the following: maes, druids, bards, gorsedd, ceremonies, Flower and Fields Dance. Moreover, singing, poetry, dancing, music, drama and fine arts also fit in this kind of group. Another linguistic scientist A.S. Kravcev also identifies peripheral semes, which he divides into two groups: autonomous and occasional. To the first one we can refer Lord Rhys, Cardigan Castle, Iolo Morganwg, Llangollen. To the second one it is possible to refer the cities, because any Eisteddfod, except the International one, which is annualy in Llangollen, are held in different cities and even other countries like Australia, Africa, England, etc.
The data obtained provides an exhaustive interpretation of the structure of the lexical unit “Eisteddfod”. A detailed study revealed the whole essence not only of this unit, it also reproduced a complete view of the festival. A relation between the different kinds of semes has been established. As consequence of using definitional analysis, etymological analysis, semantization, linguistic and cultural interpretation, it is concluded that between all of these lexical units relating to the “Eisteddfodd” hierarchy is settled, which is called hyper-hyponymic relationships.
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- Collins dictionary [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://www. collinsdictionary.com/ (дата обращения: 25.12.2019).
- Webster’s Dictionary [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://www.webster-dictionary.org/definition/eisteddfod/ (дата обращения: 14.12. 2019).
- Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/eisteddfod/ (дата обращения: 13.12. 2019)
- Oxford Dictionary [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/ (дата обращения: 10.12. 2019)
- Macmillan Dictionary [Электронный ресурс]. URL: https://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/eisteddfod (дата обращения: 10.12. 2019).