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Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 15(59)

Рубрика журнала: Филология

Секция: Лингвистика

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Библиографическое описание:
Malykhina E.V., Zhidyaeva J.V. CONTOUR CRAFTING IS AS INNOVATIVE METHOD IN BUILDING ENGINEERING // Студенческий: электрон. научн. журн. 2019. № 15(59). URL: https://sibac.info/journal/student/59/138794 (дата обращения: 30.10.2020).


Malykhina Elizaveta Vitalyevna

first-year student of the 11th group of Institute of Construction and Architecture (ICA)

Russia, Moscow

Zhidyaeva Julia Viktorovna

academic advisor – senior lecturer, Department of foreign languages and professional communication, Moscow State University of civil engineering

Russia, Moscow

This article is devoted to the study of 3d printer and how to use it to solve the main human problems. The aim of my research is to point out various conditions it can operate, advantages and disadvantages of this new technology.

The printer is capable of print a concrete building with a volume of 144 cubic meters. It is noteworthy that the height of the device it is a little more than two meters.

Work on the creation of three-dimensional printers began in the eighties of the last century. D -Shape is one of the most unusual options of building 3D printing, designed by Italian engineer Enrico Dini. Unlike competitive units, 3D printer D-Shape does not use positioned on three axes, the extruder, and relies on a whole array of 300 nozzles mounted on a movable platform. Working area in the current version is 6x6 meters. Technology is more like ink jet printing, and the array is used for applying a bonding agent on the layers of sand. The first model, patented in 2006, printed with epoxy resin, but this approach has caused many technical difficulties and was abandoned. The new version, patented in 2008, uses as binderow metal oxides and magnesium chloride. the most impressive example of the practical printing remains one-piece sculpture called "Radiolaria" size is 3ґ3ґ3 cell meter..The first printer delivered a total print time of 48 hours on the first house. Currently, work is underway on the second printer, which will be able to print a standard house in less than 24 hours.

Also, Behrokh Khoshnevis and his idea of «contour crafting» in 2008.  Contour crafting is a building printing technology being researched by Behrokh Khoshnevis of the University of Southern California's Information Sciences Institute (in the Viterbi School of Engineering) that uses a computer-controlled crane or gantry to build edifices rapidly and efficiently with substantially less manual labor. It was originally conceived as a method to construct molds for industrial parts. Khoshnevis decided to adapt the technology for rapid home construction as a way to rebuild after natural disasters, like the devastating earthquakes that have plagued his native Iran.

"StroyBot" Andrey Rudenko: Regular layering is being printed at 30mm width by 10mm height, but Rudenko can print layers of virtually any size. Materials for the printer the cement slurry, i.e. the mixture of cement with sand and some additives and other additives in certain proportions. here's something Rudenko and demonstrated the capabilities of its technology to the full, typing an Annex of 130 m2 with multiple bedrooms, all the necessary utilities and even a Jacuzzi As consumables were used geopolymeric concrete from volcanic ash. The project unique is the fact that the hotel wing was operated the world's first 3D-printed object

Cor Apis have Spetsavia and promising competitor in the face of the Irkutsk company Apis Cor. If 3D printers Spetsavia, like most of its competitors, use the portal scheme, the development of Apis Cor based on the use of telescopic manipulator on the turntable. In other words, the printer builds walls around himself, and upon completion is transferred to another place with a crane. The design originally provided by a high mobility: a compact unit weighing six tons easily fits in a truck. The first full demonstration of the capabilities of fancy 3D printer was construction of a pilot building in Stupinoended a month ago. The unusual rounded shape of the house is 37 square meters demonstrates the architectural and construction flexibility of 3D printing. For construction of the walls took less than a day, but full solidification took about another month. Note that the project was carried out in favourable weather conditions, which is why the object had to erect under the tent.

WinSun: After completion, the building housed the office of the "Dubai of the future." The 3D printer WinSun is a gantry design with dimensions 36х12х6 meters, and as consumables are used mixtures with fillers from recycled waste, most likely fiberglass. «Office of the future» was built in just 17 days in the UAE, including the posting of communications, finishing and construction. The erection of a building of 250 square meters has engaged a team of eighteen people, and for the printer looked after by only one operator.

How we can benefit from 3D printing technology?

-The construction process is faster and more accurate. Printing is done off of a 3D model, so unless there are issues with the model, errors are very unlikely.

-3D printing also reduces construction costs by as much as 80%. Humans are no longer needed to erect the building, so this could potentially save hundreds of thousands of dollars in labor costs per home.

-There is also a huge reduction in waste. 3D printing is environmentally friendly. It uses 100% recyclable materials, so any components not used can be broken down and used in another project.

- There are also no safety issues to complicate the process. Because no heavy equipment or power tools are needed, the construction process is very safe.

However, there are some disadvantages of this technology.

- Using 3D printing instead of traditional building materials can seriously disrupt the construction industry.

- Because no workers are needed to build, 3D printing will reduce the labor force, which could lead to huge spikes in unemployment. Tools and equipment will no longer be needed, so industry manufacturers might see a decreased interest in their commodities.

- There are also some limitations to 3D printing. One printer may not be able to print everything you need, so you’ll be limited by which materials you can use.

- In addition, because these printers are large, there may be issues regarding transporting these printers to various locations, as well as storing them.

- Plus, using digital models comes with risks. Any errors in the file can cause major defects that can ruin the building.

This project is relevant to consider for the construction of houses for refugees during civil, military and other conflicts. Relevant this method of construction in areas of man-made and natural disasters. Through the proprietary 3D printing technology and cutting-edge materials, people can provide sustainable solutions to a number of our world’s most pressing issues, including the pandemic of homelessness in the developing world, the difficulty of constructing off-planet space habitats, and the exorbitant cost of customized housing. There are distinct advantages for leveraging 3D printing in space, namely that there isn’t a need for oxygen or food and local materials can be utilized. Families who receive a home own the home and maintain it on their own. Homes are purposefully simple without unnecessary items to reduce maintenance costs.

Comparing to traditional construction methods, the 3-d device erects a building of similar size and layout 50 % faster. The main articles of economy: labor (up to 80 %) and material consumption (up to 60 %).

The process of 3D printer’s work is quite easy. The material, for example, plastic is fed to the extruder. It’s pulled through the machine by rotating cylinders and is heated up in cylinder head. Hot plastic is pushed through a small opening. The extruded material is placed on the model in the right places. Using a quick-setting, concrete-like material, contour crafting forms the house's walls layer by layer topped off by floors and ceilings set in place by the crane. However, you need to pay attention to the fact that first the complete house print using a 3D printer and after it is finished build the final touches including roof, windows, doors and electrical by conventional methods. It is designed to work under the constraints that are common in places like Haiti and rural El Salvador. Power can be unpredictable, potable water is not a guarantee, and technical assistance is sparse. However, it can be used at low temperatures, if it’ll be covered with a special protective coating. This first printer developed specifically for the developing world is meant to be mobile and weighs around 2,000 lbs.


The house is designed on the computer and the data is then forwarded to the 3D printer. The 3D printer is a fully automatic gantry robot that is larger than the building; The fast-hardening special concrete and normal concrete are supplied via concrete containers.

First, the gantry robot pours a frame layer by layer using the fast-hardening special concrete. Its computer-controlled spray nozzle places thin traces of the concrete on the ground, which are brought to their final shape by two side-mounted trowels. Then the frame is filled with normal concrete. Furthermore, finished steel frameworks or the like can be introduced with. Thus, a building is created exactly after computer drawing.

The first permitted, 3D printed house was created in 48 hours of total printing time and for around $10,000 (printed portion only). The 350 square foot home is in Austin, TX. The home serves as proof-of-concept and was created in partnership with the non-profit, New Story.

The first printer delivered a total print time of 48 hours on the first house running at roughly 25 % speed. Currently, work is underway on the second printer, which will be able to print a standard house in less than 24 hours.

It is able to find plenty of ink for 3D printer, for example:

Materials for 3D construction

For the construction of strong, wear-resistant load-bearing structures, concrete mixtures with additives are used. The most popular on the market are the following "ink»:

- clean concrete;

- sand concrete;

- water-resistant gypsum-for facing works;

- a mixture of glass fibre, for printing three-dimensional elements;

- with industrial waste geopolymers – for fragile structures;

- blend with fibrovolokno to create parts of elongated shape;

- anti-frost mixture - for operation at low temperatures;

- with plasticizer-to recreate a smooth surface;

- with the addition of diatomite beads – for roughness;

- modified gypsum for decorative printing

The last thing we would like to draw your attention is 3D printing of buildings in different countries, including Russia. For the first time houses were built with the help of 3D printer in China. Currently, Chinese companies are taking large orders from Saudi Arabia and Iraq for the construction of many houses. Objective: to provide middle class homes and solve the problem of urban reconstruction after military conflicts. The second position is occupied by the United States, their printer is able to print the house for a day, also in the development stage is the method of printing concrete. The third place is occupied by the United Arab Emirates. The entire office complex was printed in 17 days. Construction cost $ 140,000, and the use of a 3D printer reduced construction time by 50-70 % and reduced labor costs by 50-80 %.

In General, the Russian Federation is now beginning to organize industrial production of 3D printers. The first sales of such printers have already begun in 2011. Currently in Russia industry additive technologies are in an active stage of development.

In conclusion, we would like to say that disadvantages of 3d printer are insignificant, this method will benefit many times more than harm. This project is relevant to consider for the construction of houses for refugees during civil, military and other conflicts.



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  2. Hyams A., McCan E., Ferguson H. Construction methods modular [electronic resource]. – Access mode: https://www.building.co.uk/data/construction-methods-modular/5094760.article (free access).

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