Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 20(232)
Рубрика журнала: Филология
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PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND LEADERSHIP
This article discusses the concept of "leadership" in state and municipal management. The requirements for the personality of the leader are studied, as well as the problems that may arise in leadership in state and municipal management are analyzed.
Keywords: leadership, state and municipal management, management, hierarchy, manager, organization, personal growth.
Leadership in state and municipal management is the presence of public influence among state and municipal employees, which allows them to unite other state and municipal employees in order to achieve the goals of state and municipal management as effectively as possible.
In accordance with federal legislation, several approaches to leadership in the state and municipal service can be distinguished. The features of leadership within these approaches are determined by such factors as the scale, limits of authority, responsibility, the degree of detail of the functions being implemented.
The following approaches to leadership in state and municipal management can be distinguished in accordance with the classification of positions of state and municipal service:
1. Leaders of state and municipal authorities who hold the positions of heads and deputy heads of state and municipal government bodies.
2. Leaders of structural divisions of state and municipal government bodies. The efforts of these leaders are aimed at solving short-term and current tasks of state and municipal administration. In the formation of an approach to leadership, there is a focus on state and municipal employees. To improve the efficiency of state and municipal management, this type of leadership uses not only traditional management styles in the form of authoritarian, democratic or liberal, but also situational leadership, transformational leadership, a team approach, the widespread use of network communications, ensuring the introduction of virtual leadership.
3. Leadership at the specialist level. This leadership extends to positions that are established for professional support of the performance of state and municipal government bodies, their tasks and functions. A specialist leader is the best performer of functional duties in his position. He has authority, expert opinion, the ability to competently assess the changes taking place and is able to advise other specialists.
The professional and personal qualities of leaders in state and municipal management based on the conducted research include:
- control rigidity;
- using diplomacy;
- availability of business skills;
- using virtual network spaces;
- social orientation of activity;
- the ability to organize personnel work.
The manifestation of leadership in state and municipal management depends on many factors, which include:
- firstly, the presence of certain personal qualities in the leader, including a high level of professionalism, responsibility, trust in people, initiative, the ability to comprehensively and systematically comprehend the situation and the problem, implement the general line of the state and municipal government, develop its strategy and so on;
- secondly, the ability to ensure the use of various styles of their behavior in relation to state and municipal employees, followers and the population;
- thirdly, the ability to demonstrate high moral qualities, the ability to manage your own emotions, the emotions of other people, apply the skills of disposition to yourself and people, communication.
Leadership in government bodies is based on the principle of hierarchy, which allows you to build a vertical leadership structure, on the professional and emotional involvement of the leader in the process of solving official tasks and the focus on the result of the work of the team. The key aspect is the professional involvement of the leader in the information process and the decision-making process.
Leadership in state and municipal management can cause various problems. For example, a charismatic state or municipal employee can become a leader without having the appropriate professional skills and management abilities. At the heart of such leadership is often political leadership, expressing the ability to infect other people with their ideas. But this leadership does not always ensure the effective administrative work of state and municipal authorities.
At the same time, people who have the appropriate skills to ensure the effective work of state and municipal authorities may not have sufficiently vivid personal qualities to secure leadership positions in the team.
Identification of leaders in the system of state and municipal authorities requires the organization of a special direction of personnel work with state and municipal employees.
The basic requirements for the personality of a leader in the civil service are grouped into three blocks of personal qualities.
The main directions of leadership development in the civil service are:
1) improving employee training in modern methods of team management;
2) development of modern criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of managers in public authorities;
3) development and implementation of personal growth trainings that contribute to the development of the personal potential of civil servants.
Thus, the implementation of leadership in public authorities is associated with the specifics of professional activity and the peculiarities of building these structures: an administrative and command management system with rigid forms of subordination, with rationalization of activities and compliance with subordination, execution by employees of orders and instructions of a higher organization, special working conditions and increased responsibility for the results of work.
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