Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 25(153)
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CRITERIA-BASED ASSESSMENT AS A TECHNOLOGY FOR THE FORMATION OF COGNITIVE COMPETENCE OF STUDENTS
КРИТЕРИАЛЬНОЕ ОЦЕНИВАНИЕ КАК ТЕХНОЛОГИЯ ФОРМИРОВАНИЯ ПОЗНАВАТЕЛЬНОЙ КОМПЕТЕНТНОСТИ СТУДЕНТОВ
Абдирахманова Эльмира Алдиярбеккызы
магистрант, Казахский университет международных отношений и мировых языков имени Абылай хана,
РК, г. Алматы
Касымбекова Мархабат Асхатовна
научный руководитель, д-р философии, Казахский университет международных отношений и мировых языков имени Абылай хана,
РК, г. Алматы
This article gives information about cognitive competence, its constituent parts and stages of implementation. Moreover, the article provides a detailed description of criteria-based assessment technology. The criteria-based assessment is considered as an effective technology in formation of cognitive competence.
В данной статье дается информация о когнитивной компетенции, ее составных частях и этапах реализации. Кроме того, в статье приводится подробное описание технологии оценки, основанной на критериях. Критериальная оценка рассматривается как эффективная технология формирования когнитивной компетентности.
Keywords: cognitive competence, the structure of cognitive competence, principles of formation of cognitive competence, criteria-based assessment, assessment.
Ключевые слова: когнитивная компетенция, структура когнитивной компетенции, принципы формирования когнитивной компетенции, критериальное оценивание, оценивание.
One of the main tasks of the modern school is not only the education of students, but also the awakening of a personal motive, the awakening of interest in learning, the desire for self-education, the development of cognitive, creative, communicative qualities, "teaching students to read", that is, the formation of cognitive competence of students. The analysis of the scientific and pedagogical literature shows that cognitive activity can be defined as the self-directed activity of a student to solve specific cognitive problems of personal significance and socially significant significance, accompanied by the acquisition of knowledge and skills necessary for their solution in obtaining, processing and applying information.
Modern society is undergoing significant changes. Today, due to the process of globalization, we can definitely say that educational system of Kazakhstan is at a new level of its development. Currently, one of the main tasks of an updated content of education is the creation of an educational environment favorable to the effective formation and cognitive development of a person who embodies national and universal values, who possesses skills such as problem solving, decision making, critical and creative thinking that are essential to the everyday life and who is able to demonstrate competitiveness on the world stage. Thus, to meet all these requirements an updated content of education puts the stress on the competency based approach of teaching and learning. The use of such an approach contributes to the displacement of traditional teaching and learning and leads to a new approach to the content of education, its methods and technologies. The main units of updating are the concepts of competence and competency, which became an integrative indicators of assessing the quality of an education. Modernization of Kazakhstan's educational system involves the formation of students ' functional literacy, responsibility for choosing an educational path and key competency which is cognitive competency that ensure self-development in all spheres of life. In accordance with this, to form students’ cognitive competency it is necessary to approach the choice of assessment technology based on a competency-based approach, taking into account the individual characteristics of students and implementing the development of a variable educational environment. In connection with the emergence of an updated educational paradigm based on a competency-based approach, new educational standards: the professional pedagogical community and; the focus of attention of participants in the educational process was the problem of forming a reliable, open, valid and technological system for evaluating students ' academic achievements, which has a systematic, interdisciplinary character. However, until now, there was no universal assessment system which has been identified that meets the requirements of the changed society and the educational space as a whole.
The priority goal of modern school education is to develop a person who is ready for effective interaction with the outside world, self-education and self-development (Kvitova, 2008). So that to achieve independence of learning, the student's self-control and self-evaluation, independence, readiness and ability to monitor and evaluate his activities, identify and eliminate the causes of difficulties that arise during the educational process became of a great importance. In order to form these achievements, there was a need to make significant changes to the teaching methods, techniques and evaluation, including revision of the school's activities, its goals, content and technologies. The problem of evaluation was one of the most pressing problems both in pedagogical theory and in pedagogical practice. The reason is that the evaluation is the key to formation cognitive competence. Moreover, the competency-based approach puts in the first place not the student's awareness, but the ability to solve problems that arise in cognition, in people's relationships, in professional life, in personal self-determination. From the standpoint of the competency-based approach, the main direct result of educational activity is the formation of key competencies, one of which is cognitive competence.
Despite the fact that the competence we are considering is referred to differently in scientific works, for example; "cognitive" (M. N. Komissarova, 2006); "educational-cognitive" (S. G. Vorovshchikov, 2007), "intellectual-cognitive" (E. R. Antonenko, 2010; N. I. Samoilova, 2011), "Educational-Research" (V. V. Laptev 2001), "cognitive" (E. V. Vyazova, 2009), all researchers have given the same definition of these competencies, that is, they have concluded that cognitive competence is a competence that is realized and formed in the course of cognitive activity.
According to a number of scientists, A.V. Khutorskoy defines cognitive competence as "the main competence aimed at increasing knowledge, mastering methods of cognitive activity, developing certain abilities and skills in educational activities, developing creative thinking and independence in educational activities." He concludes: "educational and cognitive competence refers to one of the main competencies, that is, to the general content of knowledge, and also refers to the totality of the experience and interrelated semantic orientations of the student, in particular, knowledge, skills, in relation to a certain range of specific objects of reality necessary for the implementation of productive activity of personal and social significance" [1, p.63].
According to M. S. Menshova, cognitive competence includes motivational, active, cognitive-operational and evaluative components, each of which has universal and specific parts. The author believes that the components of cognitive competence are motives, needs, goals, values for learning, i.e. motivational components. The cognitive-operational component includes a fundamental knowledge complex; the action component includes the ability to apply experience and knowledge into practice; and the evaluation component includes conscious observation and reflection. [2, p.5]
Cognitive competence is the ability (readiness) to carry out various types of cognitive activity and solve various everyday and professional problems on the basis of self-development, assessment of one's knowledge and the possibilities of their application. Thus, cognitive competence, being a product of a student's education, is a consequence of his/her development and self-development [3, p.1446]. Cognitive competence is a component of foreign language communicative competence along with linguistic, socio-cultural, compensatory and speech. The formation of educational and cognitive competence will allow students to use a foreign language to meet their interests and cognitive needs in various fields of scientific knowledge.
Cognitive competence provides for the development of generalized methods of activity, general academic and special educational skills that allow improving educational activities for mastering a foreign language, as well as using it for the purpose of continuing education and self-education.
Cognitive competence is a set of student's abilities in the field of independent cognitive activity, including elements of logical, methodological, general educational activity, correlated with real cognizable objects. This includes knowledge and skills of goal-setting, planning, analysis, reflection, self-assessment of educational and cognitive activities. In relation to the studied objects, the student masters creative and productive activities: obtaining knowledge directly from reality, mastering methods of action in non-standard situations, heuristic methods of solving problems. Within the framework of this competence, the requirements of appropriate functional literacy are determined: the ability to distinguish facts from speculation, possession of measurement skills, the use of probabilistic, statistical and other methods of cognition.
O. V. Potanina considers cognitive competence as a form of "the existence of knowledge, skills, education in general, which leads to personal self-realization, finding their place by graduates and reducing the period of adaptation to new conditions of activity" and defines cognitive competence as " the result of education, in which the level of readiness of the student allows him/her to have the ability to develop cognitive activity in professional, personal and social life, self-organization and self-development; readiness for constant improvement of the educational level; the need to actualize one's personal potential, demonstrate reflection and independently acquire new knowledge and skills" [4, p. 301].
The European Community interprets cognitive competence as "readiness for continuous improvement of the educational level, the need to actualize and realize one's personal potential, the ability to independently acquire new knowledge and skills, the ability to self-development" [5, p.63].
Zvezdina, A. A. believes that cognitive competence is one of the most important competencies. This is a set of competencies of a student in the field of independent cognitive activity, which includes elements of logical, methodological, and general educational activities related to specific cognitive objects. The degree of formation of cognitive competence sometimes significantly determines the quality of a student's learning result. [6, p.103].
S. S. Kunanbayeva considers the formation of language as an integral part of the cognitive process and the formation of thinking. The formation of cognitive competence manifests itself in cognitive structures in the order of mental education, through which a person perceives the surrounding world and interacts with it as a generalized native language of natural language, which reflects collective consciousness... In the context of the transition to a new language, cognitive competence provides a conscious process of secondary conceptualization of the world» [7, p. 54].
Stepanova E. I. noted that cognitive competence is implemented in the order corresponding to the following three stages.
The first stage (basic level) is the period of accumulation of memorized, stored and translated information from short – term memory to long-term memory. There is a mental processing of primary information.
The second stage (middle level) is the processing of information by logical operations and conceptual Systems (Signs, Symbols, tables, etc.).
The third stage of information transformation and evaluation (higher level) occurs at the level of creative thinking, including the presentation of hypotheses, the search and selection of possible assumptions, and practical implementation using various means of action. [8, p. 44].
According to L. A. Osipova, cognitive competence is "an integral quality of a person that ensures her desire and readiness to realize her potential (knowledge of the technology of educational activities, the ability to apply this knowledge in practice, the experience of independent educational activities) when successfully solving problem problems in the process of educational and other activities" [9, p. 9].
The essence of the assessment is understood ambiguously by different authors.
Thus, S. L. Rubinstein, focusing on the problem of evaluation in the pedagogical process, notes that the relationship between teacher and student is full of evaluation moments, and the assessment is based on the results of the activity, its achievements and failures, advantages and disadvantages, so the assessment should be focused on the result.
B. G. Ananyev notes that the development of a child's mental abilities at school is carried out by the teacher not only in the subject, but also in the assessment, which is a fact of direct guidance of the student [10, p. 81].
A. N. Mayorov defines the criterion-based approach as an approach that allows each student to determine what they can do from the point of view of a specific task, without linking their actions with the actions of other members of the group [11, p. 55].
D. V. Chernilevsky considers the criterion-based approach to assessment as an indicator of the level of assimilation of the necessary educational material [12, p. 112].
V. M. Polonsky defines the criteria for evaluating knowledge as requirements that should be guided when evaluating knowledge. In any of these approaches, different requirements are imposed on the assessment: completeness, accuracy, level of achievement, awareness and strength of the educational material obtained [13, p.84].
Criterion-based assessment is a process based on comparing students 'academic achievements with criteria that correspond to the educational goals and content of all participants in the educational process (students, school administration, parents, legal representatives, etc.), contributing to the formation of students' cognitive competence.
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