Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 14(142)
Рубрика журнала: Филология
THE IMAGE OF MOSCOW IN THE LYRICS OF M. TSVETAEVA
The article presents the analysis of the image of Moscow in the lyrics of M. Tsvetaeva. The article shows that the city looks like a national Russian world, including through the introduction of the image of Moscow. The article deals with the connection of the depicted image of the city with real historical places and events. Russian history, Russian culture and the main source of life are becoming a symbol of the capital of the Motherland according to M. Tsvetaeva. The article is intended for a wide range of readers. It will be interesting for fans of Tsvetaeva's poetry, as well as students, postgraduates and teachers of the philological field of education.
Keywords: Tsvetaeva, the image of Moscow, creativity, city, bell ringing.
The Moscow theme is one of the main themes in Tsvetaeva's work. The image of Moscow is recreated with the smallest and precious details for the author. She did not want to make a large-scale detailed picture of the life of Moscow, but she managed to create a portrait of the city through its strokes and convey the emotional atmosphere that reigns in «this peaceful city». In the poetry of M. Tsvetaeva the image of Moscow has become a cherished lyrical theme: from early works to poetic creativity the city turns out to be a receptacle of personal and historical memory.
The image of Moscow M. Tsvetaeva associated with a sense of Motherland, and a sense of an indissoluble, blood and spiritual connection. M. Tsvetaeva addressed her native city – «my Moscow», from early childhood, it was a place that has been traveled up and down, more than once mourned and suffered, where a significant part of the poetess ' life was spent.
Tsvetaeva admitted: «Yes, in 1916 I was the first to say so about Moscow... And I am happy and proud of this, because it was the Moscow of the last hour and time. At parting... These verses were prophetic».
In 1922 Marina Ivanovna was forced to emigrate from Russia, not accepting the revolution. But all the long years outside of her native country, Marina Tsvetaeva's thoughts and words, which combined into sad and hopeful lines, sought to go back.
The image of the poet's birth on the «bell land of Moscow» becomes one of the links for a number of works by M. Tsvetaeva. In the poem «With a Red brush...» (1916), M. Tsvetaeva reveals the theme of fate and destiny. The poetess associates the mountain ash with her poetic talent, a creative legacy that will remain after her death and, like clusters of mountain ash, will sometimes delight readers. This poem is very symbolic. For Marina Tsvetaeva the rowan tree is a symbol of protection and love, a symbol of the Motherland. The red color is introduced into the text of the work to create an image of the wisdom and power of Moscow. The birth of the poetess took place on the Orthodox day-the day of John the Theologian, which is reflected in the poem « With a red brush...». The red color in Orthodoxy symbolizes the divine manifestation, which gives the right to call M. Tsvetaeva a special poetess who is able to leave a trace in the souls of people through her work.
In her early lyrics Tsvetaeva perceived Moscow, its streets, boulevards and squares as an organic continuation of cozy home rooms. On the pages of her first poetry books, a single, integral world is recreated including «a runaway clock chiming», «a black apron with a bunch of books», «long shadows», «peaceful pictures of birds and sheep», «embrasures of windows», «millions of starlamps», «autumn garden», «cute, early twigs», «old linden trees», «familiar lane»... The fragile beauty of the city – the world of children's games, fairy tales, dreams, the first love and the first separation [5, p.65].
In the poem «The Houses of Old Moscow», the city appears as a symbol of the past. Rhythmically, the poem resembles an old dance tune. It revives words and concepts that convey the aroma of ancient times: «century-old gates», «wooden fence», houses where «painted ceilings» and «harpsichord chords». But these Moscow houses – «the glory of the languid great-grandmothers» - disappear, « like ice palaces at the wave of a wand». And with them old Moscow loses its former solemnity and grandeur. « The houses with the breed sign» were the guardians of the soul. In the interior decoration of the «houses of old Moscow, in the atmosphere of «modest alleys», in the scattering of household items, there is a living connection with many human destinies, unknown rhythms of the city's existence [2, p. 119].
Moscow in Tsvetaeva's pre-revolutionary poetry acts as the guardian of centuries-old Orthodox traditions. The symbolic embodiment of the value pillars of being is found in M. I. Tsvetaeva's images of the Kremlin cathedrals, Moscow churches, and, especially, the Iverskaya Chapel that appear in a number of poems («From my hands – the city not made by hands...», « Past the night towers...», « Moscow! What a huge...», «The Eve of the Annunciation...»). The Iverskaya chapel finds in the image of M. I. Tsvetaeva the closest emotional connection with the dramatic spiritual life of her heroine, and in the poem «Past the Night Towers...» (1916) «burning», «like a golden casket», it symbolizes the light of spiritual truth in the gathering darkness of the pre-revolutionary years [9, p.59].
The most complete and vivid image of Moscow is recreated in the cycle «Poems about Moscow» (1916). This cycle was created over several months (from March 31 to August 16, 1916). It consists of nine poems united in one image - the image of Moscow, which has a symbolic meaning. In the cycle «poems about «Moscow», Tsvetaeva's composition uses a ring composition to show the connection of destinies. In the first poem, Tsvetaeva talks about the birth of her daughter, and in the last one she recalls her birth. Her daughter's birthday is a continuation of her life. A new person appears to continue the history of the family, not to let it forget itself, to leave the long-lasting course of history. The theme of birth is connected with the theme of death.
Of the sound images in Tsvetaeva's poems about Moscow predominates the ringing bell, endowed with a wide variety of psychological characteristics, as a rule, correlating with the inner state of the lyrical «I». The entire capital land is called by the poet «The Bell land of Moscow!». The image of the bells over Moscow in Tsvetaeva's lyrics is symbolic. Ringing bells are a necessary component of Moscow. The ringing of the bells makes you happy and calms down. The organicity of the bell ringing is associated with the harmony of the spiritual world of the city. The two images of bell ringing that occur in the Moscow cycle ringing-sleep and ringing-thunder, sleep and insomnia-convey a state of rest, or alertness, or thunderstorms of change.
Throughout her life, Marina Tsvetaeva carried her love for Russia, Moscow, and her father's house. Favorite poetess’ capital of the Motherland becomes a symbol of Russian history, Russian culture, the main source of life. Tsvetaeva has no doubt that sooner or later all paths will cross here, in this «huge house». In Tsvetaeva's lyrics, the city looks like a national Russian world, including through the introduction of the image of Moscow. It is an undeniable fact that Moscow for Tsvetaeva is a home and a gift that is not received, but given away. Moscow, as the most valuable asset, she gives her daughter and her lover as a guarantee of the authenticity of feelings.
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