Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 14(142)
Рубрика журнала: Педагогика
USE OF PROBLEM-SEARCHING SITUATIONS IN THE PROCESS OF DEVELOPING THE GAME OF THE "CITY" BY ELDER PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
The article reveals the relevance of using the game "Towns" in preschool institutions, substantiates the possibility of using problem-search situations in the process of mastering this game by older preschool children, gives examples of these situations that can be used in organized educational activities for physical development, as well as during walks and conversations.
Keywords: game "Towns", cognitive interest, problem-search situations, senior preschool age.
The preschool education system is constantly undergoing changes and renewed. Even as it seemed, the primordial Russian game "Gorodki", recently consigned to oblivion, is gaining its relevance. This game began to be included both in complex preschool education programs: "Childhood" by T.I. Babaeva, A.G. Gogoberidze, O. V. Solntseva [8, p.67], "From birth to school" ed. NE Veraksy, TS Komarova, EM Dorofeeva [14, p.79], and in partial programs: "Play for health!" L.N. Voloshina and T.V. Kurilova [5, p.17], "Come out to play in the yard" by L.N. Voloshina [6, p.45]. It is also important to note that programs for teaching preschoolers to play in small towns were released: The program of additional education "Towns for preschoolers" by V.М. Dukhanina, N.M. Safronova [9, p.32], “Teaching preschoolers to play“ Towns”” by M. Borisova, T. Zorina, N.M. Safronova [4, p.24].
The game "Towns" has origins stretching far into the past. Even Peter the Great himself used this game for the physical training of the Russian army, and the Russian commander A.V. Suvorov believed that the game “Gorodki” promotes the development of the eye, speed and strength [10, p.37]. Also, the great importance of the game "Gorodki" was noted by the Russian physiologist I.P. Pavlov, he said that this game gives people the most valuable thing, namely health [16, p.54]. K. D. Ushinsky, speaking about the harmonious development of the child's personality, wrote that one of the main tasks of pedagogy is to draw attention to folk games [20, p.215]. Our country's President Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin said: “National sports are an important component of the culture of the multinational people of Russia. Our country can rightfully be proud of its primordial folk games and competitions that have come down to us since ancient times and are distinguished by their special originality. National sports could contribute to the cohesion of a multinational society, therefore, their development must be raised to the level of public policy."
Research by E.Y. Adashkevichene [1, p.103], L.N. Voloshina [7, p.62], Z.I. Nesterova [13, p.88], T.I. Osokina [15, p.72] and many other scientists prove that the game "Towns" is available to children of senior preschool age and have a huge impact on their physical development, namely on the formation of the child's motor function and individual components of movement.
Characterizing the preschool age, I would like to note that it is at this age stage that the child's motivational sphere is formed. In older preschool age, a special place among all motives is occupied by cognitive ones. It is important to note that being at this age stage does not at all guarantee that the child will develop cognitive activity, this is due to the fact that most often both teachers and parents are concerned only with the fact that children have developed certain knowledge and skills, and no interest in knowing the surrounding reality.
In his research I.V. Bulygina, N.G. Goncharova, E.V. Ponomareva, E.A. Pylnenkaya note that at present, in connection with the introduction of new state requirements for preschool education, the teacher faces a difficult task - to teach children to acquire knowledge, and not just to give ready-made material, in other words, to develop their motivation for learning. They assure that we should not protect children from difficulties, we should give them the opportunity to experiment on their own, solve a problem, discover something new and unknown. Considering this approach, problem-search situations are actively used in kindergartens at the present stage [17, p.64].
In his work, V.I. Agapova defines these situations as a contradiction between the level of knowledge about an object and its actually existing characteristics. In other words, these are such cognitive situations, from which there is no ready way out from the point of view of science [2, p.137].
According to K. Yu. Babanskiy, problem-search situations are situations of cognitive difficulties that involve children in independent learning of new material [3, p. 18].
In his research I.A. Kolesnikova defines problem-search as a set of conditions that are necessary to create a problem and stimulate children to solve it [11, p.114].
Considering this issue G.V. Selevko argued that when using problem-search situations, children can not only master certain knowledge, skills and abilities, but also we can influence the development of their creative abilities and thought processes [19, p.84].
In his work, S.L. Rubinstein argued that solving problem-search situations affects the development of creative thinking in children, as well as cognitive skills and abilities. He wrote that “thinking usually begins with a problem or a question, with a contradiction,” in other words, it is the problem situation that determines the inclusion of the individual in the thought process [18, p.371].
In his research A.M. Matyushkin wrote that it is problematic - search situations bring joy to preschoolers, due to the fact that children independently seek a solution to the situation and discover something new for themselves. A.M. Matyushkin notes that the most important thing is that these situations ensure the development of cognitive independence and creative activity in children [12, p.109].
A man, as S.L. Rubinstein, owns only what he mined on his own. Thus, creating these situations, we encourage children to learn, teach them to look for a solution to the problem on their own [18, p.640].
We will give examples of the use of problem-search situations in the process of mastering the game "Towns" during conversations, organized educational activities for physical development and on walks.
To develop children's interest in the game "Towns", an introductory conversation can be organized, which will include watching a fragment from the cartoon "Just wait!" (issue No. 4 "At the stadium"), discussion, acquaintance with the history of the game and the problematic - search situation "Why such a name?" In the course of this situation, the hero of the cartoon "Hippopotamus" comes to visit the children, who, together with the children, examines the illustrations of the towns, suggests why they received such a name.
In the course of physical development classes, problem-search situations can also be used, for example, to consolidate children's knowledge about city figures. Problematic - the search situation "What kind of figure?", Where Dunno turns to children for help, who found illustrations of figures built from small towns, but does not know at all what it is and asks children to tell about what they are called and how they are needed build. It is problematic - the search situation "Build the same", in the course of this situation, the characters from the cartoon "Smeshariki" - Krosh and Nyusha come to visit the children, who tell them that they like to play in small towns and that they have loved ones figures. To find out which ones, they need to be divided into teams of boys, they will guess the favorite figure of Krosh, and a team of girls who will recognize the figure of Nyusha. After that, the boys must follow the blue arrows, and the girls follow the pink ones, in the course of this they find boxes of the corresponding color, in which there are parts of the image of the figures. Further, the children compose these figures by commands and name them. Problematic - the search situation "Who is faster?" visiting the children are three little pigs from a fairy tale, who inform the children that each of them has prepared a surprise for the children, but they must be found. Then they give the children a map, which schematically shows a plan of the area and places with surprises. In the course of the search, the children find three bags in which the townships lie. After that, they offer the children to divide into three teams according to a colored lot (from the bag I draw a colored chip, which color is the team) and build a figure, and inform that the team that builds faster will receive the main prize. They tell the name of the figure with the help of a riddle:
This figure will save us from the heat,
On a hot summer day it will give water. (Well)
Then they give medals to the team that completed the task faster, but also praise the rest for their efforts and hand stickers.
Also during the walk, in order to update the knowledge gained by children about the game "Towns" and to hone the skills of the game, you can organize a story game - a journey for children, including problem-search situations. Before going for a walk, the teacher tells the children that an audio message from Snow White has come to her phone and invites them to listen to it together. In this message, Snow White reports that she hid a treasure for the children, but they can find it if they remember the colors of the rainbow, move in the right direction and complete all tasks. On the street, children discover 7 balls of rainbow colors, after which the teacher, together with the children, recalls their sequence. Moving in accordance with the sequence of colors in the rainbow, children find tasks from gnomes on each ball and complete them. On the red ball is the task from the dwarf Sonya, who built the figures, but remove, something is wrong, the children must understand what is missing in these figures and complete them (problematic - search situation "What's wrong?"). On the orange ball is a task from the gnome Grumbler, who informs the children that he hid all the towns on the site and asks to remember how many of them there should be and to find everything (problematic - the search situation "Where are the towns?"). On the yellow ball is an assignment from the dwarf Clever, who invites children to answer questions about the game "Towns":
1. What do the squares in which the figures are placed? ("city");
2. What is the name of the area from which whole pieces are thrown? (con);
3. What is the name of the area from which finishing off towns is performed after knocking out at least one town? (half-window).
On the green ball is a task from the dwarf Chihun, who asks the children to find an important element of the game - a bat. As a hint about the place where she is, he voices to children a riddle about a bench, having guessed which, the children find a bat (problematic - the search situation is “Do you need a bat?”). On the blue ball is a task from the gnome Modest, who asks to divide the children into two teams: girls and boys, then open the boxes containing cut images of figures to build and build them. On the blue ball is a task from the gnome Simpleton, who invites children to knock out the figures of rivals, girls knock out the figure of boys, and boys knock out the figure of girls. On the purple ball is a congratulation from the gnome Veselchak, who praises the children for completing all the tasks, and therefore, together with Snow White, they give the children a gift - a construction set. Thus, using problem-search situations in the process of mastering the game "Towns" by children of senior preschool age, we will teach them to set a goal for themselves, to independently look for ways to solve the problem, to approach this process creatively.
Thus, using problem-search situations in the process of mastering the game "Towns" by children of senior preschool age, we will teach them to set a goal for themselves, to independently look for ways to solve the problem, to approach this process creatively.
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