Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 27(113)

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Библиографическое описание:
Grumova N. CREATION OF A MOBILE MINI-LABORATORY FOR STUDYING THE TOPIC "METALS" FOR HOME EDUCATION // Студенческий: электрон. научн. журн. 2020. № 27(113). URL: https://sibac.info/journal/student/113/186472 (дата обращения: 10.08.2020).

CREATION OF A MOBILE MINI-LABORATORY FOR STUDYING THE TOPIC "METALS" FOR HOME EDUCATION

Grumova Natalia

student of the physics department, Moscow State Pedagogical University,

Russia, Moscow

ABSTRACT

The modern FGOS OO is based on the system-activity approach, but homeschooled students are deprived of the opportunity to perform laboratory work and real experiments in chemistry. To solve this problem, a mobile mini-laboratory for the study of the topic "Metals" has been developed, designed for conducting chemical experiments at home by 9th grade students.

 

Keywords: home, education, chemistry, mini-laboratory, experiments, metals.

 

Modern education needs to improve the forms, methods and means of teaching in accordance with the new requirements associated with the competence-based approach. The selection of content, the construction of the structure, the choice of methods and means of teaching chemistry in secondary school is carried out on the basis of the current Federal State Educational Standard, which does not offer specific subject content, but orientates the implementation of the educational process on the basis of a system-activity approach. Chemistry is an experimental science. Therefore, it is especially important to develop skills in research activities, implemented through the organization of various types of experiments.

Research by D.M. Zhilin the state of the chemical experiment in Russian schools showed that virtual experiments are mainly used in the home form of education [3, с. 48-56]. But, as studies by L.A. Tsvetkova et al., only in real experiments do students acquire skills in handling reagents and laboratory glassware, develop analytical skills, and acquire skills in experimental activity [8, с. 192].

The global trend in the development of school chemistry education is primarily aimed at acquiring practical skillsin parallel with theoretical [2, с. 160]. So in the countries of Europe (Great Britain, Germany, Italy, France), the North American continent (USA, Canada), Asian countries (China, Japan), the implementation of the practical part of chemistry by students is carried out through research activities[9].Laboratory and practical work is not episodic from topic to topic, from section to section, but complex. The results obtained by students are drawn up in the form of a report, which can be presented both in writing and / or in the form of a multimedia (presentation, animation, etc.)[6].

This approach to the implementation of the practical part of the chemistry program allows you to fully form and develop the research and cognitive activity of the personality of students. The result is a person who is able to act independently, make decisions in various life and professional situations, this approach is justified in the implementation of home schooling. Such a person is able to continuously update his knowledge, which, in turn, entails the improvement of professional competencies [1]. The use of experiments in teaching chemistry creates such conditions for the assimilation of knowledge and methods of activity, in which their various combinations are possible.

According to the website "Statistics of Russian Education", today in Russia about 100 thousand families annually study in the form of family education. Since the adoption of the current law of the Russian Federation "On Education", more than 1.5 million Russians have received family education [2, с. 160]. But homeschooled students do not have the opportunity to conduct real experiments in view of the undeveloped material base.

There are several educational mini laboratories on sale. For example, a universal mini-express laboratory "Pchelka-U / chem", allowing to carry out experiments both in chemistry and ecology and biology. But the set of proposed experiments does not quite match the curriculum [1]. The most significant disadvantage of the laboratory is its high cost, which ranges from 34,000 to 54,900 rubles, which is very expensive for parents of schoolchildren.

Note that home or individual education differs from family education in that it is carried out by school teachers, the child is enrolled in school, learns only basic subjects, only children with medical or social indications can study in this alternative education system [5]. Usually, it is for the parents of this category of students that the cost of teaching aids is essential. But, of course, a mobile laboratory can be useful for other categories of students: family-trained students; distance learning students; students under the external program; students of schools that do not have an equipped chemistry classroom.

Taking into account the vastness of the experimental base of the chemistry course, it is rational to create not one multifunctional mobile laboratory, but a set of specialized mini-laboratories (chemical experimental modules) on the main topics of the school chemistry course. It is important that the development of these modules can be carried out by the students themselves in the framework of design and research activities. The topic "Metals" was chosen as a pilot version of a compact, mobile, functional mini-laboratory, since it has a fairly wide range of reactions that underlie the study of the subsequent topics of the course.

The mini-laboratory consists of two parts. This is a portable extendable suitcase-table with a minimum set of reagents for the work of students and a storage container for reagents kept by a parent or teacher. Optimally, the suitcase and container are made on a 3D printer strictly according to the size of the selected laboratory glassware. If not available from a 3D printer, it is permissible to use a box made of plywood or laminated multi-layer cardboard with a carrying handle. Inside the suitcase there are compartments for reagents, which prevents contact during transportation.

A lesson using a mini-laboratory begins with the study of theoretical material and filling out the theoretical part of the laboratory journal. As an admission to the implementation of real laboratory work, the student answers the questions of the on-line test and, in most cases, performs virtual laboratory work that allows him to focus on experimental techniques and safety rules.

 

Picture 1. Online test questions on the topic: "Iron"

 

After that, the student, in the presence of an adult (teacher or parent), conducts the experiment in the mobile laboratory, describes it in the laboratory journal and draws conclusions. Checking the assimilation of the material is carried out using a practice-oriented task on-line. https://onlinetestpad.com/ru/test/28647test-po-khimii-po-teme-metally.

Based on the use of a mobile laboratory and based on the requirements of the 9th class program. to the topic "Metals" The student will be able to: characterize the general properties of metals based on their position in the electrochemical series of metal voltages; define and apply the following concepts: alloys, metal corrosion, transition elements, amphotericity; conduct elementary experiments demonstrating the chemical properties of metals and their compounds: reduce water hardness and clean the surfaces of household appliances from calcium carbonate compounds; handle laboratory equipment; comply with safety regulations; carry out qualitative reactions, and recognize the most important cations for Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions; distinguish between the most common metals Next, we present the selected experiments for studying the topic "Metals" in the form of scheduling (see Table 1):

Table 1.

Recommended Experiments to Explore Metals Using the Mobile Mini Lab

Lesson number

Topic 5. Metals.

Experiments

Reagents

27

The position of metals in the periodic table of chemical elements D.I. Mendeleev. Metallic bond. Physical properties of metals.

Description of the physical properties of metals

Zinc

Copper

Gland

Rare Metals Set

Copper wire

Zinc granules

Iron plate or paper clip

28.

Chemical properties of metals. A number of metal stresses.

Interaction of copper, zinc with ferrous sulfate.

Copper sulfate solution

Zinc granules

Copper wire

Iron plate

29.

The concept of metallurgy. Methods for obtaining metals. Problems of waste-free production in metallurgy and environmental protection. Alloys.

Study and description of physical properties

Iron compounds

(iron ores)

Iron ore set

30.

Alkaline, alkaline earth metals. Being in nature. Calcium and its compounds. Water hardness and how to eliminate it.

Experiments on removing water hardness and removing limescale from the tap

Hydrochloric acid solution

31.

Aluminum. Being in nature. Properties of aluminum. Amphotericity of aluminum oxide and hydroxide.

Interaction of aluminum with hydrochloric solution

  acid and sodium hydroxide

Obtaining aluminum hydroxide and proof of its amphoratericity

Aluminum plate,

Hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions,

aluminum chloride

32.

Iron. Being in nature. Iron properties. Oxides, hydroxides, salts of iron (II) and iron (III).

Interaction of copper with ferrous sulfate.

Rusting of iron (obtaining hydroxides of iron (II) and iron (III)

Copper wire, ferrous sulfate solution

Potassium hydroxide, ferrous sulfate,

 

Complete set of a mobile mini-laboratory on the topic "Metals":

A set of chemical glassware: Test tubes 25ml - 4 pieces

Measuring cup 2 pcs. -100 ml. Test tube holder - 2 pcs.

Filter paper - 1 pack. Glass sticks - 2 pcs.

Pipettes - 2 pcs. Sets: Set "Rare metals"

1 x Spatula 1 x Pear 1 x Tweezers

Funnel-1pc.

A set of metal plates measuring 3x2cm: Copper, Iron (steel), Aluminum. Set: Iron ores (4 types)

Reagent kit:

1) 2% FeSO4 solution - 50 ml.

2) 2% Al2 (SO4) 3 solution - 50 ml.

3) 0.1 M NaOH solution - 50 ml.

4) 0.1M Ca (OH)2 solution - 50 ml.

5) Baking soda NaHCO3-50g.

6) Zn-granules 100 gr.

7) Distilled water 50ml. - H2O

Security means:

Rubber gloves 1 pack Safety instructions - 2 pcs.

Experimental instructions - 2 pcs.

Thus, the legislation provides for the possibility of home education. Much has not yet been developed in this direction, in particular, in the field of teaching chemistry, there are not enough teaching aids for conducting experiments by students at home, and although virtual laboratories can help a lot, this cannot replace real experiments in the study of chemistry. We have studied the most approximate analogues and determined that there are no completely similar tutorials in terms of functionality and content. This allows us to conclude that the textbook is new. Based on the study of this problem, a mobile mini-laboratory was also developed - as a teaching and visual aid for studying the topic "Metals" in the course of chemistry in grade 9 and recommendations for its application were given. In the content of the teaching aid for each topic of the lesson of the selected topic, the studied requirements are implemented and safe, cognitive experiences are provided. using the content of the manual.

 

References:

  1. Vaulina Nailya Mukhutdinovna Formation of subject competence of schoolchildren in chemistry lessons // Bulletin of the South Ural State Pedagogical University. 2010. No. 6. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/formirovanie-predmetnoy-kompetentsii-shkolnikov-na-urokah-himii (date of access: 12.12.2019).
  2. Gerus, S.A. Theory and practice of rationalizing the process of teaching chemistry in secondary school: monograph / S.A. Gerus. - SPb .: Publishing house of the RSPU im. A.I. Herzen, 2017.-- 160 p.
  3. Zhilin, D.M. Chemical experiment in Russian schools / D.M. Zhilin // Russian Chemical Journal named after D.I. Mendeleev. - 2011. - No. 4. -S. 48-56.
  4. Kiranen. Yu. Home teaching. http://baznica.info/article/domashnee-obuchenie-stanovitsya-vse-bolee-/ (date of access 12.10.2019)
  5. Misyutina. D. Homeschooling in Russia. http://school4you.ru/homeschooling-in-russia/ (date of treatment 10/12/2019)
  6. Scribe. A. Home education in the USA and Canada: from extreme to mainstream. http://www.freeedu.ru/modx/domashneeobrazovanie-v-ssha-i-kanade-ot-ekstrima-k-mejnstrimu
  7. "Pchelka-U / Khim" Online store Karimashttps: //shop.christmas-plus.ru/catalog/uchebnye_laboratorii/pchyelka_u_khim/
  8. Tsvetkov L.A. Experiment in organic chemistry in secondary school: experiment and technique: a guide for teachers / Ed. E.I. Orzhekovskaya. 5th edition, rev. and add. - M.: School press, 2000 - 192 p.
  9. Keith Friedkis. Homeschooler at the University. http://freeedu.ru/modx/xoumskuler-v-universitete

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