Статья опубликована в рамках: LV Международной научно-практической конференции «Культурология, филология, искусствоведение: актуальные проблемы современной науки» (Россия, г. Новосибирск, 07 февраля 2022 г.)
Секция: Теория языка
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DISCOURSE AS A LINGUISTIC ASPECT FOR COMMUNICATION
ДИСКУРС КАК ЛИНГВИСТИЧЕСКИЙ АСПЕКТ КОММУНИКАЦИИ
Давутова Анисям Құдратқызы
магистрант 2-го курса, Казахский университет международных отношений и мировых языков имени Абылай хана,
Республика Казахстан, г. Алматы
The article is devoted to the definition of the concept of discourse in linguistics through the prism of different approaches with the identification of the characteristics of each.In this study, an attempt is made to review the existing points of view on " communication " and "discourse", as well as to compare these concepts on the basis of the principle of integrativity, which is fundamental within the framework of the modern linguistic paradigm.As a result of studying , it was revealed that one side of the discourse is addressed to pragmatics, to typical communication situations, the other to the processes taking place in the minds of participants in communication, and the third to the text itself. This gave reason to believe that discourse can be considered both as a process and as a result in the form of a fixed text.
Статья посвящена определению понятия дискурса в лингвистике через призму различных подходов с выявлением особенностей каждого из них.В данном исследовании предпринята попытка пересмотреть существующие точки зрения на "коммуникацию" и "дискурс", а также сравнить эти понятия на основе принципа интегративности, который является основополагающим в рамках современной лингвистической парадигмы.В результате изучения было выявлено, что одна сторона дискурса обращена к прагматике, к типичным коммуникативным ситуациям, другой - к процессам, происходящим в сознании участников общения, а третий - к самому тексту. Это дало основание полагать, что дискурс можно рассматривать как процесс, так и как результат в виде фиксированного текста.
Keywords: discourse, communication, speech, conversation.
Ключевые слова: дискурс, коммуникация, речь, беседа.
Within the half of the last century, science locked in within the consider of languages realized that the language is really a kind of logical abstraction or fiction that has no coordinate connection to the genuine forms of communication. The consider of language laws did not influence language users. The need of rules for utilizing the collected information of the dialect has driven to the rise of utilitarian disciplines centered on the human factor. The incorporation within the logical worldview of makers of language units, different parameters of discourse circumstances contributed to the advancement of the hypothesis of communication and discourse interaction, which driven to the development of unused bearings in phonetics (theory of speech acts, text theory, utterance theory, discourse theory), unused objects of investigate, a modern language unit – discourse. With the approach of communicative useful or communicative-pragmatic models, numerous unused concepts were presented, in specific, discourse activity, speech act and its structure, communicative purposeful, communicative and language competence, performative articulations, etc. The human being as a subject of language communication, the maker and "client" of dialect is getting to be one of the central perspectives of communicative and down to business phonetics, which has gotten need over the past thirty a long time.
The word communication derived from the Latin. "Commiso" which suggests "make common", "interface", "communicate". Communication in human society is caught on as communication, trade of considerations, information, sentiments, behavior designs, etc. Communication is an fundamental part of human presence. In daily life, it is seen by us as a common marvel and very justifiable. Be that as it may, at all times, human communication has pulled in incredible intrigued from logicians, clinicians, sociologists, etymologists, and social researchers. And this appears that " communication is one of those concepts that only at to begin with look appear clear and self-evident ... human communication could be a conflicting and not effectively logical marvel".
The discourse here is "the substance in combination with additional phonetic, down to soil, socio-cultural, mental and other factors", " a communicative event that makes a substance, relating, to start with, with a certain mental sphere/certain data, and, besides, with specific models-outlines, models of substance time and acumen ", the strategy of discourse development of the speaker (monologue)/speakers, which presents not because it were data roughly the "state of endeavors inside the world", but as well the full set of subjective, socio-cultural, tallying cliché, point of reference, etc. implications. The speaker inside the communicative circumstance does his voice work, based on the by and expansive the objective is denotative the circumstance in light of its claim energetically, sentiments, assessments, joins comments substance laws of semantic and auxiliary insightfulness, completeness, cohesion and coherence, making thus a result – the substance, i.e. "bundling" discourse inside the substance".
We can recognize three fundamental classes to utilize of the term discourse:
a) phonetic appropriate, where discourse is thought of as speech recorded in a communicative situation. "Discourse is speech drenched in life" as a sort of speech communication, as a unit of communication;
b) discourse utilized in news coverage, going back to the French structuralists and over all;
c) discourse utilized in formal phonetics that tries to present components of verbose concepts of generative grammar.
Demyankov V. Z. on the introduce of works on exterior phonetics fortifies the past definitions, tallying characteristics related to differing disciplines-semiotics, communication speculation, human science, secluded basis, etc.:
"Discourse – a conversation, an subjective substance portion comprising of more than one sentence or an independent parcel of a sentence". Regularly, but not persistently concentrates around many reference concept, makes a common setting, depicting the on-screen characters, objects, circumstances, time, exercises, etc., being chosen not so much by the arrangement of sentences, as those common to form a conversation and its interpreter a world that's "built" in the midst of the course of action of the discourse is the point of see of "Ethnography of discourse ".
Components of the discourse: the occasions depicted, their members, performative data and non-events:
1.the circumstances going with the occasions;
2.the foundation clarifying the occasions;
3.the evaluation of the occasion members;
4.data relating the talk to the occasions".
Discourse in this definition is characterized as a" amount " that's not satisfactory, not synonymous with the content, but much broader.
T.A. Van Dijk also has a definition that interprets discourse as a social phenomenon: "Discourse is a speech stream, a language in its constant movement, absorbing all the diversity of the historical epoch, individual and social characteristics of both the communicant and the communicative situation in which communication takes place. The discourse reflects the mentality and culture, both national, universal, and individual, private .
Thus, summarizing the above definitions of the concept of "discourse", it can be argued that this term, as it is understood in modern linguistics, is close in meaning to the concept of "text", but emphasizes the dynamic, time-unfolding nature of language communication; in contrast, text is thought of primarily as a static object, the result of linguistic activity. Some researchers interpret discourse as including two components at the same time: both the dynamic process of linguistic activity, inscribed in its social context, and its result (that is, the text); this is the preferred understanding.
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