Статья опубликована в рамках: LIX Международной научно-практической конференции «Культурология, филология, искусствоведение: актуальные проблемы современной науки» (Россия, г. Новосибирск, 08 июня 2022 г.)
Секция: Германские языки
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FEATURES OF MEDIA LANGUAGE
ОСОБЕННОСТИ ЯЗЫКА СМИ
Далецкая Татьяна Анатольевна
старший преподаватель, Сибирский государственный университет водного транспорта
The paper examines the language of media texts. The special attention is given to description of morpho-syntactic features in the media language. In particular, news reports are analyzed.
Настоящее исследование посвящено изучению языка медиа текстов. Особое внимание уделено рассмотрению морфо-синтаксических особенностей языка СМИ. В частности, анализируются характерные черты новостных сообщений.
Keywords: media text, syntagmatics, morpho-syntactic features, news report.
Ключевые слова: медиатекст, синтагматика, морфо-синтаксические особенности, новостное сообщение.
This study is devoted to analyzing the language of online newspapers. One of its main functions is informing the mass audience about what is happening in the world, at the same time, affecting the addressee. It is clear today that to influence the perception and evaluation of information is the task of mass media and this impact is of special veiled character where language is the instrument to enhance this influence.
The material for the study is the media texts: CNN, The Sun. After analyzing the media texts in various media, linguistic features focusing on syntagmatics: the morpho-syntactic level will be considered.
To begin with, online media texts are inextricably connected with hypertext containing links to other texts and the system of intertextual links to search the web more effectively. The main principles of media texts are
- economy of time and space.
The peculiarities of news media texts are triggered by electronic communication and its specific feature – receiving information from the phone or monitor screen. Therefore, traditional features of media texts are simplicity, dynamic character, information content, objectivity and a neutral style of the language that are clearly reflected at the morpho-syntactic level and the following characteristics of a news media text can be distinguished:
- appeal to a wide target audience;
- different channels of information transmission;
- a distance between the source of information and the audience;
- a large number of quotes to various sources of information, for example: The interim US ambassador to the UK, Philip Reeker, told Sky News … director of Central Intelligence, Bill Burns, said….  и т.д;
- a large number of passive forms and impersonal constructions that are aimed at presenting information objectively, distancing the author from the reader. It is to be stressed that especially in the thematic group “conflict” a lot of passive forms have been found. The analysis made it possible to identify the following typical features of verb forms:
- information is not referred to any source, the style of the news text is neutral and impersonal: The contest was expected to be an effective referendum on the rise of France's political extremes before Russia invaded Ukraine in February, prompting a shift in the national discourse…. French voters are particularly concerned about the cost of living, which has skyrocketed due to inflation and rising energy prices ;
- the verbs such as to inform, to report, to know, to say are used in active forms to refer to the source of information: However experts say her policies on Europe "amount to Frexit in all but name" as they would ultimately have the same effect .
However, critics say Le Pen's campaign has not adequately explained how Paris will pay for many of the solutions being proposed .
- passive constructions with verbs to be reported, to be said, to be known are used to refer to an unspecified or unknown source of information: The missile is said to be the world's longest-range intercontinental ballistic missile .
It is interesting to note that the passive helps put the political and ideological accents on the message in a different way. Thus, linguistic means reveal not only certain ideological positions of communicants, but also value systems and political attitudes;
6) the use of a descriptive component such as adverbs with -ly: French voters are particularly concerned about the cost of living, which has skyrocketed due to inflation and rising energy prices …However, critics say Le Pen's campaign has not adequately explained how Paris will pay for many of the solutions being proposed….Macron's handling of the yellow vest movement, one of France's most prolonged protests in decades, was widely panned ;
7) a great number of continuous forms that describe events in the past, present and future to compare the time of the event with reality and to stress the process itself. Actually, continuous forms show events that are happening at the moment: Macron, 44, is pitching voters on an innovative, globalized France at the head of a muscular European Union… ALARM bells are ringing in Brussels over fears a shock victory for Marine Le Pen in today's French presidential election could "spell the end of the EU as we know it" ;
8) the use of impersonal construction there is that is neutral and intentionally distant: "There is nothing like this [satan 2] anywhere in the world, and won't be for a long time.";
9) attributive syntagmatics where lexical relations (combination of root morphemes, for example, government policy) and syntactic relations are distinguished, that is, connections in a grammatical way, for example, global destruction.
The syntagmatic lexical relation is the most economical in terms of language tools, and its main goal is transmitting information effectively in a compressed form. The syntagmatic grammatical relation is expressed by a few components, traditionally, adjective + noun model is used with one or two components: Putin has boasted that his apocalyptic 'Satan 2' nuke missile can "break through any defenses" as he revelled in the prospect of global destruction. The deadly projectile can fly over 11,000 miles, carry 15 warheads and has the potential to destroy an area the size of the United Kingdom in a single strike .
To sum up, in terms of morpho-syntax the basic features of an English news text are the following:
- a greater number of verb phrases;
- the use of passive constructions;
- a number of syntagmatic lexical relations in news media texts;
- a lot of syntagmatic grammatical relations comprising two or three components;
- adjective + noun model of word combinations - the most common type.
Thus, it should be noted that in practice a mixed relation is used that includes both lexical and grammatical methods. Summing up, all the mentioned above features of the news media texts are aimed at sending and communicating specific public messages where media language characterized by simplified syntax, language economy combined with clarity and expressiveness is the key instrument to achieve this goal.
- Berlinger J. Emmanuel Macron and Marine Le Pen face off again, with France's future direction at stake [Электронный ресурс] // CNN, 24.04.22 URL: https://edition.cnn.com/2022/04/24/europe/french-presidential-election-preview-intl/index.html (дата обращения: 24.04.2022)
- Davis K. France election: Alarm in Brussels as shock Marine Le Pen victory today would ‘spell end of the EU as we know it’ [Электронный ресурс] // The Sun, 24.04.22 URL: https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/18318364/france-election-le-pen-victory-eu/(дата обращения: 24.04.2022)
- Hussey T. Putin boasts devastating Satan 2 nuclear missile can ‘break through any defences’ and will be ready to strike in months [Электронный ресурс] // The Sun, 24.04.22 URL: https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/18358256 (дата обращения: 24.04.2022)