Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 2(88)
Рубрика журнала: Технические науки
Секция: Архитектура, Строительство
The article discusses the historical development of airships and matching them with the architecture of the service, storage and repair of aircrafts. Describes causes and solutions for the approach to design.
Keywords: Architecture, Aviation, Airship, Elling, the Mooring mast.
People tend to cross the Meridian, sometimes on business, sometimes for pleasure and travel, in any case, what makes them tick. The most expected choice of public transport to move, perhaps, are cars, trains and planes. But in the future it is possible to represent the revival of such amazing people vehicles - airship.
The whole world began to show interest in ballooning unit, because in comparison with their predecessors of nearly a century of zeppelins of our time there is good replacement in the technical equipment and filling gas. From this you can emphasize security updated airship, moreover, for all its capacity, it is much more environmentally friendly and more economical aircraft. With all the development in this field currently does not have a developed approach for the introduction of Aeronautics. In this matter the architecture plays an important role, applying in designing an effective educational environment for maintenance and use. Architecture, building on past experience, is a means for the initialization, development and promotion of Aeronautics. The introduction of Aeronautics in widespread use will be a novelty. Analysis of the dimensions of modern aircrafts is the starting point for the formation of the architecture of the maintenance and storage of airships. Ground equipment is very important in terms of its impact on the development of air service airships.
Specific engineering and architectural building called the boathouse, construction of buildings, storage and repair of airships, designed more streamlined. One of the main requirements for boathouses and their location on the site is to provide a convenient work in it, and safe input and output airships for maybe a longer period of time. For this axis the direction of motion of the airship when you enter through the gate should match the direction of the most dangerous speed of the wind. Difficulties in production operations, commissioning and decommissioning of airships depend also from the nature of the flow the shed air flow. The structure of this flow at the entrance to the boathouses depends not only on the direction and speed of the wind, but also on many other factors, of which the main are: the aerodynamic qualities of the design of the boathouse (especially the gate in the open state), the mutual position of the slipway and surrounding buildings, terrain. To meet the conditions of good streamlining boathouses must have a minimum number of protruding parts. In order to reduce the amount of slipways in the design should avoid the presence of unused interior spaces. The development of this specific architecture has been development along with transformation of airships.
From the first days of the creation of the airship, the shape of the boathouse is constantly changing together with the shape of the aircraft. The first boathouses looked like rural sheds in the enlarged view, made of wood and had buttresses in the form of farms. The window openings were at the bottom, place the gate was used a thick cloth fixed with ropes. The first pilot devices have the shape of a sphere or ellipsoid. Following the development of the boathouses got when the ballooning has found its necessity, and began to invest the money from which the airship began to take on a new form and increase in size. Finding themselves in an elongated shape in the form of a cigar, the airship needed another shed, this time with large volumes handle was more difficult since the extended form has picked up of sailing power, this machine required more reliable boathouse. This occurred in the late 19th century, in the midst of the development and use of metal. Updated boathouse from the outside had the shape of a trapezoid tapering towards the top is covered with saddle roof, inside was the system of frames trusses - providing the necessary stability and reliability. In ground use of this boathouse architects did not stop, an interesting alternative for moving was the water. Floating view of the boathouse, due to the use of the airship for military purposes, where in the years of the first world war was used during the landing of the soldiers and the bombing of cities. Placement of a boathouse on the water allows you to save area and also can be moved by tug. During the first world war took many shelters for aeronautic devices, and boathouses began to make not such thorough, they were placed large airships, small patrol airships were placed behind wind screens. Proven in the war – airships have undergone great development. German Graf Zeppelin, began to invest in the development, production and development of these devices. Thus was born the shape of an elongated ellipsoid, which has become a classic in the representation of airships. Worldwide started the "boom" development of Aeronautics, and the boathouses began to acquire a more perfect aerodynamic shape, the cost of construction has increased, and with it architects-engineers can experiment. Elling in Akron example, the design of the structure has a streamlined shape without unnecessary protrusions, the gates are semi-spherical design opening in the form of a hangar without creating wind turbulence. In other experimental examples was the decision in the response with the wind and other difficulties. With a significant crosswind to input or output the airship becomes totally impossible, there were proposals for the design of a large rotary shed, from which it would be possible to apply the airship in any direction of the wind. Boathouse with rescigno system represents a difficult pivotally connected structure, which through a system of levers, blocks, etc, driven by motors, can swing on the ridge, then compactly be folded. When opening the boathouse forms a mobile platform for the airship, which is moored for the production of special anchors, after which the walls and roof go up in its place.
It is important to say that the presence of a hangar for the output and input of the airship enough for this huge value is the mooring mast to which the airship is secured to nose piece. Approach the mast from downwind, the airship clears hydrop the tether, the staff on the ground pick up the rope and then tighten the winch to the mast — its nose is fixed in the connecting socket. Approached the airship can rotate freely around the mast as the wind vane. On large passenger aeronautical stations mooring mast used as a passenger gangway (lifting to the top platform of the mast, through the hinged bridge, getting inside the airship). A mooring mast there are two types: low - to the ground landing high landing directly on the mast. The strength of airships is that allows you to stay on the mooring mast in very bad weather conditions, the mast at anchor mounting increases stability. Mooring mast, if necessary, can be mobile on the fixed platform vehicle ground. The disadvantage of this storage airships is their a quicker wear than if stored in the boathouse. It is possible that a mooring mast will be further normal berthing and Parking of airships, because the material of the cladding system, changing its composition, when modern technology will reduce the amortization.Mooring masts are of interest for architectural design, the general equipment of the mooring mast can be both individual and part of a complex building, and the development of technology in recent years has begun to design hybrid-type airships, which allows them to land on an unprepared site.
In size, the airship becomes smaller, gaining advantages over other aircraft, this eliminates difficulties at times, but equipping the mooring mast and boathouse is also an important component.
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