Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 15(59)
Рубрика журнала: Технические науки
Секция: Архитектура, Строительство
Student of the 1st course of IBA 51 Moscow State (National Research) University of Civil Engineering (MGSU),
Senior teacher of F. L. chair of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU),
Introduction. Nowadays, owing to the technical progress people want to perceive the beauty. As we know, one of the main people's demand is aesthetic. More often humanity turns to the art especially to architecture and music. With the use of statistical research we can see that this interest to it is increasing. People enjoy visiting the exhibitions, they take part in educational programs. Our topic "architecture is a frozen music" is connected with both of these items, thus it is very actual and important. In the article the information is about the meaning of this phrase, about the history of it and the authority. For full understanding, I compare the history of development of architecture and music of new time. It concerned some similar conceptions in architecture and music. Additionally, some buildings refer to music. While some of them are consisted of music instruments, others are related to musicians and musical performances. Architecture can serve music and music architecture too.
Firstly, this phrase in usual form appeared in the essay "Lectures on the philosophy of art" (1842) of the German art theorist Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775-1554). Schelling’s formula as an idea of comparing architecture to music has been invented before. The French writer Germain de Stael in her novel “Corinna” (1807) wrote that the architecture of St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome was similar to “uninterrupted and entrenched music”. We can find a similar thought in "Sentences in Prose", made by I. V. Goethe. He said, “architecture is a dumb music”. Apparently, the aphorism of Schelling is a paraphrase of the last two.
Architecture can be named a frozen music, as these spheres of art have a lot in common. They have the same history of development. Both of them were changed due to the technical progress. Recent times because of this progress people's minds became broaden. It gave architects and musicians an opportunity to absorb new styles and show it to the audience. Architects and composers put something new in their work, they did experiments and achieved high results. Unfortunately, with the growth of consumer's demands architecture and music came to the sameness. In music such phenomenon signalized with the appearance of pop-music. At the same time in architecture equal buildings started to emerge. Now absence of originality is a relevant problem. Lots of architects and musicians want to find new formula of beauty. Unity of music and architecture can be the revolution of beauty.
Furthermore, lots of architectural styles are doubled in music. At the beginning of the twentieth century the Russian composers S.V. Rakhmaninov, A. N. Scriabin, and I. F. Stravinsky made a significant contribution in musical revolution. They worked in the style of modernism. One of the first architects who worked in such style was the Belgian Victor Orta (1861-1947). In his projects he actively applied metal and glass. In such stylistic way worked A. Gaudi. All of his constructions had fantastic forms. The brightest example is the Cathedral of the Holy Family in Barcelona. More than that new genres of music were formed such as musical. It combines elements of operetta, ballet and melodrama. In architecture a new types of constructions were appeared. Everything is developing, nothing stands at the same place
To understand the meaning of phrase "architecture is a frozen music" I decided to find some buildings connected with sounds and notes.
Picture 1. Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling
Picture 2. Cargo Guitar in Japan
The Cargo Guitar in Japan is the innovative installation that allows visitors to see and feel what it is like to be inside a real guitar. It was made by three artists: Marcelo Ertorteguy, Takahiro Fukuda and Sara Valente. The installation is consisted of a shipping container equipped with eight large glow-in-the-dark steel strings stretched across the interior in a half-twist design. Visitors can actually try the Guitar.
The next example is Dresden's "Court of Water". It was created by Heike Bottcher in 1999 for farm collective. It features a fascinating array of funnels and tubes that create hydro music when the rain comes pouring down. Blue façade with such system immersed tourists in a small recreational and shopping area. When artists thought up this conception, they took inspiration from St. Petersburg’s Rainy Theater, but Dresden’s installation is very different.
Picture 3. Court of Water, Germany
Picture 4. Dithyrambalina, USA
Dithyrambalina is a shanty town that represent a giant music box. It was built by Brooklyn artist Swoon. Dithyrambalina is a marvelous series of constructions, which were made from rubbish. Old windows, reclaimed wood, musical instrument parts are combined together to create a picturesque scene. The town has lots of tiny houses fit up interactive instruments, which are made suitable for playing. Musical elements are built into walls, floors, staircases. Nowadays it is used as experimental art and sound laboratory. So, this place is a godsend for musicians and people try to find inspiration. The name of the installation happened from the genre of ancient Greek choral lyrics “dithyramb”.
Ancient Theater of Epidaurus is the next example of cooperation of music and architecture. It is one of the most preserved old ancient theater. The theater is famous for its phonic quality, it claims that audience is able to hear a pin drop, at any seat in the arena. It has a brilliant acoustic. Here sound is transmitted within an enclosed space. It was built by the architect Polykleitos the Younger between 340 and 330 years BC. It is used nowadays. The maximum capacity of the theater is from 13,000 to 14,000 viewers. In the antiquity it was applied to help patients of nearby hospital. Greeks thought that dramatic shows paid positive effect on mental and physical health.
Epidaurus was opened after excavation, which was made by archeologist Panayis Kavvadias (1870-1926). The first modern staging in this theater took place in 1938. Nowadays in Epidaurus the dramatic festival is organized every summer. Since then large amount of famous and talented singers have dreamt to take part in concerts, which happen there. Many celebrities sang in Epidaurus, such as operatic vocalist Maria Callas.
Picture 5. Ancient Theater of Epidaurus, Greece
Picture 6. Villa d’Este, Italy
One of the most beautiful place in Italy is villa d’Este. The complex is consisted of a palace and a large garden. It was made in the 16th century by architect and archaeologist Pyrr Ligorio. The symbol of this park is an organ fountain, whose complicated mechanism is worked by the pressure of water, then a miracle organ music sounds. It was built in 1568. In 1867–1882, Ferenc Liszt visited the villa and gave one of his final concerts here (1879). Liszt was inspired by the fountain music and thought up 3 new creations.
So, in architecture and music there are many similar principles: the law of harmony, rhythmical rows. The finished composition, when different elements are united together, is important for both. Music sounds through the time, architecture can be "sung" by vertical and horizontal, when you go through the rooms of building or walk near the facade. It means that architecture is situated in space, but not in time.
Two concepts, which are used in architecture and music, are rhythm and meter. Rhythm is a changing repeat. Meter is an unchanging repeat. In music it exists due to progression of durations of sounds and pauses. In architecture the objects of meter and rhythm are architectural elements. It is the main answer why architecture is named "frozen music".