Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 7(27)
Рубрика журнала: Экономика
TOURISM INDUSTRY AND ITS DEVELOPMENT IN UZBEKISTAN
After independence there have been happened many changes in Uzbekistan. In particular, in tourism industry many rules are being adopted in order to improve this field. Even, the tasks by improving the tourism are marked in the state program. Also, development of tourism industry is emphasized and the special tasks for doing it are marked at the “The actions strategy of developing of the Republic of Uzbekistan during 2017-2021” which is adopted in 7 February, 2016.
According to the statistic information of World tourism organization, the visitors to the Republic of Uzbekistan for the purpose of tourism accounted for 154,845 international tourists (9%) in 2013, with the Russian Federation representing the largest source market by arrivals with 28,255 tourists recorded. The Republic of Turkey and the Republic of India represented the second and third largest markets with 18,424 and 16,135 visitors recorded. Visitors from Germany (7881) represented the largest source market in Europe whilst visitors from the Republic of Korea (11,908) were the largest market segment originating from the Asia and the Pacific region .
International arrivals to the Republic of Uzbekistan have increased from 1.2 million in 2009 to 2 million in 2013, with visitors from the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) representing 91% of all arrivals to the country predominantly for the purpose of visiting friends and family. International visitors for the purpose of tourism accounted for 8% of all arrivals, with the Russian Federation, Republic of Turkey and Republic of India representing the three largest source markets. Visitors from Germany and the Republic of Korea represented the largest inbound markets from Europe and Asia and the Pacific respectively.
The majority of surveys (51%) were conducted in the city of Bukhara with the remaining respondents recorded at the popular tourist destinations of Samarkand (24%), Tashkent (20%) and Khiva (5%). Findings suggest that 91% of all international tourists surveyed decided to visit the Republic of Uzbekistan before departing their home country with 74% of respondents indicating that they were traveling to the country for the first time .
A total of 281 tourists spent over 2800 nights in the Republic of Uzbekistan with an average length of stay measured at 10.2 nights per visit. The highest proportion of tourists, a total of 55%, spent between 1 to 9 nights followed by 43% who spent between 10 to 39 nights in the Republic of Uzbekistan. Less than 2% of respondents indicated that they spent more than 40 days in the country.
Respondents from Europe accounted for 57% of all stays between 10 to 39 nights, followed by visitors from the Asia and the Pacific and CIS countries who represented 25% and 8% of total nights. In comparison, only 37% of European respondents stayed between 1 to 9 nights, followed by tourists from Asia and the Pacific (28%), North America (17%) and CIS countries (14%). This suggests that visitors from Europe prefer to stay longer in the country, whilst visitors from Asia and the Pacific, North America and CIS countries may prefer shorter stays .
The capital city of Tashkent, the primary gateway to the country, represented the most visited destination in the Republic of Uzbekistan with 88% of all respondents indicating overnight visitation to the city. This was closely followed by the destinations of Samarkand and Bukhara, which were visited by 86% and 85% of all respondents. Khiva represented 64% of all visitations.
Visiting museums and galleries, and undertaking guided tours and shopping excursions were the three most popular experiences that tourists actively sought or participated in when travelling to the Republic of Uzbekistan. A UNESCO World Heritage Listing was considered a significant influence in visitation for 77% of all surveyed tourists, with the strongest influence in respondents aged 55 years and over.
Although Tashkent was the most visited destination in the Republic of Uzbekistan amongst all respondents, the cities of Bukhara and Samarkand recorded a marginally higher visitor night rate with respondents on average staying 2.76 and 2.73 nights in both of these destinations. This is compared to 2.57 visitor nights spent in Tashkent.
Figure 1. Regional dispersal versus average nights spent at each destination
Figure 2. The diagram of visitors by region
Citizens from forty three nationalities were identified in the research, providing an overview of the source markets classified within this research. Respondents from Germany (11.7%), France (11%) and Australia (9.3%) represented the top three segments by country of origin, with international visitors from Europe identified as the largest segment (47%) followed by visitors from Asia and the Pacific (26%).
The respondents were most likely to seek experiences associated with museums and galleries (69%), guided tours (62%) and shopping (49%). A number of age and gender trends were also evident amongst survey responses:
- Tourists aged between 17 to 24 years were on average 14% more likely to participate in ecotourism experiences and attend a festival/event, and 9% more likely to undertake horse riding tours than any other age group. This segment was also on average 35% more likely to visit a bar, pub or club during their travels.
- Respondents aged 55 years and over were 30% more likely to participate in shopping experiences and 40% more likely to undertake guided tours than other age segments.
- Female tourists were 12% more likely to undertake a guided tour, attend a cultural performance and visit a museum whilst in the Republic of Uzbekistan, and 25% more likely to pursue shopping experiences.
- Male tourists indicated they were 11% more likely to visit a bar or club on their travels within the country and 4% more likely to go hiking and trekking.
In conclusion, since 10 February, 2018 the regime without visa for countries: Southern Korea, Japan, Indonesia, Singapore, Turkey, Malaysia, Israel, has been imposed in Uzbekistan. According to this rule, the tourists of these countries can be stay within 30 days in Uzbekistan without visa. This causes that the flow of tourists will increase.
The list of used literatures:
- Uzbekistan tourism insight: findings from the Uzbekistan international visitor survey, 2014/ World tourism organization report
- Travel & tourism Economic impact 2017 Uzbekistan/ World travel tourism council report