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Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 15(269)

Рубрика журнала: Технические науки

Секция: Архитектура, Строительство

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Библиографическое описание:
Polyakov K., Belyaeva V. THE USE OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF MODERN SUBWAY STATIONS IN RUSSIA // Студенческий: электрон. научн. журн. 2024. № 15(269). URL: https://sibac.info/journal/student/269/326309 (дата обращения: 23.05.2024).

THE USE OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF MODERN SUBWAY STATIONS IN RUSSIA

Polyakov Kirill

student, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering

Russia, Moscow

Belyaeva Victoria

student, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering

Russia, Moscow

Yudina Irina Ivanovna

научный руководитель,

lecturer, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,

Russia, Moscow

ПРИМЕНЕНИЕ НОВЫХ ТЕХНОЛОГИЙ В СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВЕ СОВРЕМЕННЫХ СТАНЦИЙ МЕТРОПОЛИТЕНА В РОССИИ

 

Поляков Кирилл Викторович

студент, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Университет,

РФ, г. Москва

Беляева Виктория Игоревна

студент, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Университет,

РФ, г. Москва

Юдина Ирина Ивановна

научный руководитель, преподаватель, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Университет,

РФ, г. Москва

 

ABSTRACT

This article discusses modern technologies used in the construction of new subway stations in Russia, it provides examples of the practical application of these technologies, and it identifies the advantages and disadvantages of each of these technologies.

АННОТАЦИЯ

В данной статье рассматриваются современные технологии, используемые в строительстве новых станций метро в России, приводятся примеры практического применения данных технологий, а также определяются преимущества и недостатки каждой из этих технологий.

 

Keywords: technology, underground construction, subway, tunnel shield, tunnel.

Ключевые слова: технологии, подземное строительство, метрополитен, проходческие щиты, туннель.

 

The speed of construction of the Moscow metro is the highest in the world. In order to develop the subway in a huge megalopolis, engineers, designers, and builders have to solve complex engineering tasks day after day and find new methods of work.

The correct location of the underground subway tunnel is very important. The use of modern technologies such as GPS and electronic total stations allows them to accurately determine coordinates and distances, which greatly simplifies and speeds up work. Accurate calculations and measurements by surveyors ensure the safety and reliability of subway construction, which is an important factor in the successful implementation of the project. This technology is used in the modern world in the construction of almost all subway stations. The advantage of these technologies is speed. They significantly reduce the time required to draw up a project plan. Automation of this process can also be attributed to the advantages. But there is also a disadvantage of electronic total stations: in case of fog, as well as a large amount of dust and bright sun, the shooting speed decreases significantly.

The next technology used in the construction of new subway stations is the use of new tunneling shields. A tunneling shield is a special mechanized complex operating underground, which bites into the ground, processes, and in its place collects concrete rings holding the arch of the earth's surface. The first mechanized shield for horizontal tunnels was tested in Leningrad in the middle of the last century, but the technology did not freeze in place.

One of the most important inventions is the tunnel shield used in the construction of ramp crossings. a tunnel inclined in profile, connecting a deep-laid subway station with a lobby at an angle of 30° and designed to accommodate escalator machines. The construction took place by freezing, but this technology is not suitable for construction in the city center, where the building is under the protection of the KGIOP (Committee for State Control, Use and Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments). "Metrostroy", with the support of the German company Herrennecht, was the first in Russia to develop the «Aurora» tunnel shield for the construction of inclined intersections. The inclined course starts from the surface of the earth and crosses all layers of soil. The first inclined shield, built with the help of mechanized sinking, was equipped with the "Obvodny Kanal" subway station in St. Petersburg. The main advantage of this technology is the protection of workers from various collapses. Due to tunneling shields, the quality of tunnel construction is improved. The disadvantages of this technology include the speed of the tunnel shield.

Another technology used in the construction of subway stations is parallel work in the tunnel. "Metrostroy" has won tenders for the construction of two subway stations - "Novokrestovskaya" and "Begovaya" in St. Petersburg. The construction of these stations includes the sinking of a double-track tunnel with a diameter of 10.3 meters and a length of 5.2 kilometers. Earlier, the builders of the St. Petersburg subway had already used the "Nadezhda" shield to lay a double-track tunnel on the Frunze radius, but in this case more time was allocated for the work, and they were carried out in stages. For example, the construction of the tunnel begins only after the excavation work was carried out During the construction of the Nevsko-Vasileostrovsky tunnel, "Metrostroy" engineers proposed to optimize the technical process - simultaneously carry out work on laying the tunnel and its layout - the construction of ventilation ceilings and rigid tunnel foundations, installation of tracks.

Due to the parallel work, the construction speed of the facility was almost twice as fast as the original one, and this method of building a double-track tunnel was patented. This technology also optimizes the construction process, which saves time and resources. Another important advantage is that there is a uniform load on workers, and labor productivity increases. There are no disadvantages to this technology, because it has appeared relatively recently, but engineers are already actively trying to improve it.

The builders of the Moscow subway have mastered the technology of "bottom-up" construction. Its essence lies in the construction of the station "from top to bottom" from ground level and the possibility of parallel construction of the structure on the surface. This method is used today at "Nizhegorodskaya" in the Southern Administrative District of Moscow. This working system helps to reduce costs economically, as well as the timing of construction work. One of the important advantages is the area of work being carried out, because construction is carried out in conditions of dense urban development. During the construction of the Moscow subway, a 10-meter tunnel-tunneling mechanized complex began to be actively used.

It allows two railway tracks to be laid simultaneously in one tunnel, which significantly reduces construction costs and time. The first line of stations where it was possible to complete the construction of a double-track section of the steel station from "Kosino" to "Nizhegorodskaya" of the Moscow subway. On the double-track section, trains in both directions will pass through one tunnel instead of the usual two, and the platforms of most stations will be of the coastal type.

One of the advantages is the characteristic feature of a double-track tunnel -safety. In the event of a train breakdown or accident, the time for the complete evacuation of passengers in such a tunnel is about 16 minutes, while in a monorail tunnel it is almost 40 minutes. Passengers can urgently exit all the doors of the train into the passage between the tracks. At this time, the movement along the other path stops.

In case of an unforeseen accident, rescuers and repairmen can be urgently sent to the second path. The 10-meter shield is also already in full use in the western and eastern parts of the Great Ring Line of the city of Moscow. In particular, in the western section, a double-track tunnel has already been put into operation from the dead end behind the "Karamyshevskaya" station to the “Aminyevskoye Highway” station, and in the eastern section - from the "Kashirskaya" station to "Tekstilshchikov". There are no disadvantages in this technology.

Geotechnical engineers mainly carry out work on the construction of subway lines at a depth of 20 meters. This is considered the most economical construction option, but the depth of the station can reach up to 70 meters. In this case, the work is carried out in closed mode. However, the deeper the station is located, the more expensive it is, and the more resources it requires. If the tunnel passes through a building or park, a way to prevent noise and vibration is calculated. For example, in tunnels under the Moscow Railway, the soil between the surface and underground tracks is compacted with cement, resin and polymer. At the same time, the tracks on which subway trains run are seamless. They are also called "velvet", because the process of applying the composition becomes smoother.

To protect the "skyscrapers" located in Moscow City from the vibration of the earth, engineers from "Metrostroy" have come up with an innovative technological solution: they started the subway trains on a special plate suspended on vibrating springs. Using this method, in which the track is damped when the train reaches the platform, the effect of vibration in a high-rise building is almost completely compensated on the surface. In addition, the latest engineering systems have been installed at all new subway stations responsible for passenger safety, which are being improved from year to year, making the subway one of the safest transport systems.

Let us take "Sokolniki" station as an example. Unique fire-fighting "curtains" have been installed in the BKL subway (Bolshaya Koltsevaya Line). They were located above the balcony gallery of the station leading to the transfer hub with the same name as the Sokolnicheskaya line station. In the event of a fire, they will completely cover the entire part of the balcony within 30-40 seconds, protecting passengers from combustion product. The advantage of this technology is: reducing the shaking of cars, and therefore reducing noise, which makes the ride in the subway car more comfortable for the passenger. This technology will also reduce vibration on structures in tunnels. There are no disadvantages to this technology, it is completely new.

In conclusion, it is necessary to note that the development and improvement of new technologies does not stand still. Currently, the construction industry is actively developing, using the latest construction methods, including artificial intelligence, which allows you to automate construction processes. In particular, it helps with the construction of new metro stations in Russia.

 

References:

  1. Inclined course // Wikipedia [Electronic resource]. URL: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/
  2. New technologies help to build the subway faster// Underground expert [Electronic resource].URL:https://undergroundexpert.info/issledovaniya-i-tehnologii/tehnologii/novye-tehnologii-stroitelstvo-metro-bystree/
  3. Construction of subway tunnels with tunneling shields// Arhplan.ru [Electronic resource]. URL:https://www.arhplan.ru/history/metro/construction-of-tunnels-tunneling-shields
  4. What innovative technologies are used in the construction of the subway// Mperspektiva [Electronic resource]. URL:https://mperspektiva.ru/topics/kakie-innovatsionnye-tekhnologii-ispolzuyutsya-pri-stroitelstve-metro/
  5. How the metro was built in Moscow, or the History of the underground city// Mos.ru [Electronic resource]. URL: https://www.mos.ru/news/item/28604073/
  6. We tell you about the main technologies that the Moscow and Western metro are implementing// Hightech [Electronic resource]. URL: https://hightech.fm/2020/09/02/metro-new-tecnology-moscow
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