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Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 15(269)

Рубрика журнала: Технические науки

Секция: Архитектура, Строительство

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Библиографическое описание:
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COPPER AND POLYETHYLENE PIPES // Студенческий: электрон. научн. журн. Kuznecov A. [и др.]. 2024. № 15(269). URL: https://sibac.info/journal/student/269/326227 (дата обращения: 23.05.2024).

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COPPER AND POLYETHYLENE PIPES

Kuznecov Anton

student, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering

Russia, Moscow

Yezhov Semyon

student, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering

Russia, Moscow

Zhuravlev Pavel

student, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering

Russia, Moscow

Yudina Irina Ivanovna

lecturer, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering

Russia, Moscow

СРАВНИТЕЛЬНЫЙ АНАЛИЗ МЕДНЫХ И ПОЛИЭТИЛЕНОВЫХ ТРУБ

 

Кузнецов Антон Сергеевич

студент, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Институт,

РФ, г. Москва

Ежов Семён Михайлович

студент, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Институт,

РФ, г. Москва

Журавлёв Павел Борисович

студент, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Институт,

РФ, г. Москва

Юдина Ирина Ивановна

преподаватель, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Институт,

РФ, г. Москва

 

ABSTRACT

This article examines the issue of comparative analysis of copper and polyethylene pipes to determine their advantages and disadvantages, it lists the properties of copper and polyethylene pipes, and it reveals the prospects for their use.

АННОТАЦИЯ

В данной статье рассматривается вопрос сравнительного анализа медных и полиэтиленовых труб для определения их преимуществ и недостатков, перечисляются свойства медных и полиэтиленовых труб, раскрываются перспективы их использования.

 

Keywords: copper pipe, polyethylene pipe, properties, advantages, disadvantages, prospects.

Ключевые слова: медная труба, полиэтиленовая труба, свойства, преимущества, недостатки, перспективы.

 

The first copper pipes were used about 5,000 years ago in the construction of temples in Ancient Egypt. They were made of forged copper sheets with edges joined by forging welding. A sample of such pipes has been preserved in the Berlin Museum. Over time, copper pipes have found application not only in the construction sector, but also in increasingly technologically advanced areas, including industry and weapons production. This was made possible due to the high operational and technological properties of copper.

Most of the copper raw materials in Russia in the last century were used for the defense sector and the restoration of infrastructure facilities, while America experienced economic growth, which led to an increase in imports of copper pipes from America. Today, copper pipes are used in various fields of human activity: in water supply systems, heating, transportation of gases, compressed air and freon, installation of hydraulic systems and underfloor heating systems, as part of industrial equipment and for fuel supply, as an element of air conditioning systems. Copper pipes are compared in terms of performance with steel, but they are less often used in Russia due to the high cost and limited access to raw materials. Copper pipes are the market leader in pipeline systems due to their unique physical and chemical properties that ensure high efficiency and durability. Copper has an excellent heat capacity, which makes it ideal for use in heating and cooling systems. To reduce heat loss and prevent possible burns, copper pipes are often equipped with additional structural elements.

Copper pipes combine the best qualities of steel and polypropylene pipelines. They are durable, have antibacterial properties and are not exposed to dangerous elements. Copper pipes are compatible with elements of systems from various manufacturers, retain their properties under the influence of sunlight and are light in weight, thereby facilitating the installation process. Due to the smooth surface, unwanted deposits do not form on the walls of copper pipes. The material is immune to chlorine, which is present in tap water, and has high strength, guaranteeing a long service life (more than 45 years). The hydraulic resistance of copper pipes is low, they are non-flammable and have extensive experience, provided that the quality of the manufacture of water supply systems is adequate. An important feature of copper pipes is their high mechanical strength, due to which they are often used to repair old steel pipes. These pipes easily replace damaged sections of old pipes and risers, ensuring the reliability and durability of the water supply system. When choosing copper pipes and fittings for the installation of water supply, it is necessary to make sure that there are appropriate sanitary certificates confirming their safety and the possibility of use in water supply systems.

However, the disadvantage of copper pipes is their higher cost compared to other materials. Copper pipes are resistant to chemical destruction in contact with water, sunlight and some acids, and also retain their properties under temperature changes.

Since the early 1960s, polyethylene has established itself as a material whose quality indicators best meet the needs of pipe production for distribution pipelines. The use of polyethylene for the manufacture of pipes in gas and water supply systems has brought radical changes to the global pipeline construction industry. More than 90 percent of the new pipeline distribution systems laid in most countries of the world for the transportation of gas and water are made of polyethylene, which is a natural result of the well-known and numerous advantages of this material in comparison with traditional rigid materials.

The main advantages of polyethylene pipelines in comparison with metal ones are as follows:

  1. Durability: the guaranteed service life of polyethylene pipes is 50 years, and the estimated service life is up to 150 years.
  2. Corrosion resistance: The physical and chemical properties of polyethylene ensure excellent tightness and high resistance to aggressive substances in the soil and the transported medium throughout its service life. Polyethylene pipelines are not threatened by corrosion and carbonate deposits. As a result of corrosion, the ability of metal pipes decreases after five years of operation, depending on the water group, by 10-48 percent, after ten years – by 14-57 percent, after 20 years – 20-68 percent. Resistance to stray currents: polyethylene pipelines are immune to them, whereas metal pipelines are often exposed to them. Polyethylene has good electrical insulation properties
  3. Polyethylene pipes have high speed and cost-effective installation. Welding of polyethylene pipes does not require the use of heavy machinery, and can be performed by a team of 1-2 people
  4. The appearance of polyethylene pipes is perfectly combined with various design solutions of residential premises
  5. The pipe material has a low thermal conductivity, which avoids the need to install special elements to reduce heat transfer
  6. Polyethylene pipe plumbing does not require additional maintenance during the entire service life due to the high quality of connections
  7. The installation of polyethylene pipelines is not difficult and is accessible to persons without professional training. Pipeline components such as fittings and pipes are assembled manually using threaded connections. The connection of pipes of significant diameter is carried out using electric welded fittings
  8. Polyethylene pipes are ideal for replacing old water supply systems. Compared to welding steel pipes, electricity and fuel consumption are significantly lower. The use of so-called "long pipes" reduces the number of welded joints by 50-100 times, which significantly speeds up the construction process and reduces its cost
  9. Polyethylene pipes are about 2-4 times lighter than steel pipes which allow installation without the use of lifting mechanisms. One transport can carry 2-4 times more polyethylene pipes compared to steel ones
  10. Due to their elasticity, polyethylene pipes simplify the construction process and allow you to avoid buying additional bends. They have increased resistance to hydraulic shocks and can be used in conditions of normal soil compaction.
  11. The throughput of polyethylene pipes increases over time for two reasons: firstly, their diameter increases during operation, which does not affect their performance due to the creep phenomenon characteristic of polyethylene. Secondly, the smoothness of the inner surface of polyethylene pipes prevents the formation of deposits, which also increases their throughput. This allows you to:
    • to use a polyethylene pipeline of a smaller diameter compared to steel, which, of course, leads to cost savings when laying the pipeline;
    • save on insulation: for laying underground steel pipelines, insulation of the pipe surface with film or bitumen mastic is required, while all types of polyethylene do not conduct heat well, therefore pipelines made of it do not require the same amount of insulation as metal pipes; the thermal conductivity of polyethylene pipes is 175 times less than that of steel, and 1300 times less than copper pipes, therefore, when choosing a material for a pipeline, it should be borne in mind that the cost of a polyethylene pipe is less than the cost of an insulated steel one.
  12. Security. Pipes for domestic drinking water supply are made of polyethylene grades approved by health authorities according to GOST 18599-2001 Interstate standard. Polyethylene water pipes are toxicologically and bacteriologically safe, their inner layer does not emit any harmful impurities into the water
  13. Polyethylene pipes are very "low noise", they muffle the sound of water flowing, which is not inherent in metal pipelines
  14. The phenomenon of moisture condensation is practically not observed on the outer surface of polyethylene cold water pipelines
  15. The temperature range of operation of polyethylene pipelines ranges from forty-five degrees below zero Celsius to sixty degrees above zero Celsius. When the liquid freezes in the pipeline cavity, the pipes do not collapse, but increase in diameter, acquiring the same size during thawing.

So, the main qualities of polyethylene pipes are: durability, cost-effectiveness, reduction of construction time, resistance to aggressive environments, elasticity.

When choosing polyethylene pipes for a specific application, it is necessary to proceed from the main characteristics and parameters of the pipeline (GOST 18599 – 2001 Interstate standard): minimum long-term strength, maximum operating pressure, standard dimensional ratio, safety factor.

The disadvantages of polyethylene pipes are the following factors:

  1. The polymers from which the pipes are made are sensitive to chlorine in water
  2. Due to the low resistance to high temperatures, it is necessary to install additional fasteners and limit the operating modes of the pipeline
  3. Polyethylene pipes are highly combustible, which implies the need to take additional protective measures when installing plastic water supply systems
  4. The design of seals on threaded fittings (made of rubber) requires constant access for maintenance (tightening connections) and repair
  5. Under the influence of ultraviolet rays, polyethylene pipes become brittle and delaminate

When calculating the cost of the finished system, it is also necessary to take into account the cost of fittings, fasteners, other accessories and fittings. If we talk about plastic pipes, these additional costs can be about 90-100 percent of the cost of the actual pipe. The same indicator for copper pipes is about 30 percent. Comparing the cost of the pipe itself will not be in favor of the copper one — it is much more expensive. Especially if the comparison is with inexpensive products from China or Southeast Asia.

The comparative analysis showed that at the moment polyethylene pipes are the most promising due to their low price and physico-chemical qualities, relative to copper pipes. However, in the near future it is possible to predict an increase in the production of copper pipes in Russia, which will be possible thanks to the approval of a new national standard — GOST R 52318– 2005 "Round copper pipes for water and gas. Technical specifications", developed by the Institute of Color Processing.

 

References:

  1. Glukhova O. V., Fattakhov M. M. Efficiency of application of pipelines from polyethylene pipes, 8th page.
  2. Copper or polypropylene pipes – which ones should to choose? [Electronic resource] URL: https://trubtraid.ru/materialy/mednye/truby-mednye-ili-propilenovye-chto-luchshe.html
  3. Comparison of plastic and copper pipes. [Electronic resource] URL: https://www.prosantexniku.ru/truby/sravnenie-plastikovyx-i-mednyx-trub.html/
  4. The pros and cons of polyethylene pipes. [Electronic resource] URL:  http://pnd-truby.ru/stati1/article_post/plyusy-i-minusy-polietilenovykh-trub
  5. Copper pipes in construction. Status and prospects. [Electronic resource] URL: https://www.c-o-k.ru/articles/mednye-truby-v-stroitel-stve-sostoyanie-i-perspektivy
  6. Prospects for the use of polyethylene pipes in comparison with metal pipes in gas supply systems. [Electronic resource] URL: https://scienceforum.ru/2012/article/2012002915
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