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Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 15(269)

Рубрика журнала: Технические науки

Секция: Архитектура, Строительство

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Библиографическое описание:
FEAUTERS OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF STORM SEWER SYSTEMS // Студенческий: электрон. научн. журн. Sayapina V. [и др.]. 2024. № 15(269). URL: https://sibac.info/journal/student/269/326063 (дата обращения: 23.05.2024).

FEAUTERS OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF STORM SEWER SYSTEMS

Sayapina Viktoriya

student, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,

Russia, Moscow

Shumskih Darya

student, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,

Russia, Moscow

Galenko Aleksandra

student, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,

Russia, Moscow

Yudina Irina Ivanovna

lecturer, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,

Russia, Moscow

ОСОБЕННОСТИ СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВА ЛИВНЕВЫХ КАНАЛИЗАЦИОННЫХ СИСТЕМ

 

Саяпина Виктория Дмитриевна

студент, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Университет,

РФ, г. Москва

Шумских Дарья Владимировна

студент, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Университет,

РФ, г. Москва

Галаненко Александра Антоновна

студент, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Университет,

РФ, г. Москва

Юдина Ирина Ивановна

преподаватель, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Университет,

РФ, г. Москва

 

АННОТАЦИЯ

В данной статье рассматриваются особенности строительства ливневых канализационных систем, их функциональная роль в городской среде, типы систем, а также экологическая значимость ливневых канализационных систем.

ABSTRACT

This article discusses the features of the construction of storm sewer systems, their functional role in the urban environment, types of sewer systems, as well as the ecological significance of storm sewer systems.

 

Ключевые слова: ливневые канализационные системы, эксплуатация и обслуживание, ливневые сточные воды, экологическая значимость

Keywords: sewage systems, operation and maintenance, stormwater, environmental significance.

 

A storm sewer system is an engineering system that is designed to collect and drain rainwater from the territory of cities, industrial enterprises and other facilities. The storm sewer system is an important element of the infrastructure that ensures the safety and comfort of the urban environment.

Let's list the functions of the storm sewer system:

1. Protection of buildings and structures from flooding and destruction

2. Preventing puddles and dirt from forming on roads and sidewalks

3. Reducing the likelihood of accidents on the roads

4. Protection of underground utilities from damage

5. Improving the environmental situation in the city

The storm sewer system consists of the following elements:

  1. Rain collectors are devices for collecting water from the surface
  2. Underground pipelines are channels for diverting water to the place of discharge
  3. Collectors are reservoirs for collecting water before discharge
  4. Sewage treatment plants are devices for purifying water before discharge into reservoirs

The design and construction of a storm sewer system is carried out taking into account the climatic characteristics of the region, the terrain and other factors. This makes it possible to ensure the efficient operation of the system and prevent possible problems associated with the drainage of rain and meltwater.

It is difficult to overestimate the importance of storm sewer systems in the modern world. Every year our planet is faced with severe and devastating natural disasters caused by climate change. Heavy rains, floods, and heavy rains are all becoming more common phenomena that can lead to loss of life, destruction of infrastructure, and loss of biodiversity. Storm sewer systems play an important role in preventing the negative effects of such natural phenomena. They are designed to collect, recycle and recycle rainwater, which can lead to flooding of streets and houses, soil erosion and pollution of water resources.

The installation of storm sewer systems has a number of positive effects. Firstly, they help to reduce the negative impact of rain runoff on urban infrastructure, reducing the likelihood of flooding and destruction of roads and houses. Secondly, storm sewer systems contribute to improving the quality of water in reservoirs, thanks to them, the amount of pollution entering rivers and lakes decreases.

In addition, the use of storm sewer systems helps to conserve water resources and prevent shortages of fresh water during periods of drought. The systems make it possible to efficiently collect and store rainwater for subsequent use in household needs, agriculture and industry. Thus, storm sewer systems are an integral part of the modern infrastructure of cities and towns, contributing to the preservation of the environment and ensuring sustainable development.

Their use is necessary to reduce the negative impact of climate change and prevent the devastating effects of natural disasters.

The first known example of a drainage system appeared in 1367. In the seventeenth century, as the streets began to be paved, the drain was improved. The earliest weirs were made of wood. Starting from the 11th century, the spillway systems began to change. The drainage systems were made by hand, and each builder had his own standard. The mass production of drainage systems began in the era of the Industrial Revolution. This period is characterized by the fact that manual labor began to be replaced by machine labor, and technological advances that were obtained as a result of the two World Wars allowed the development of drainage systems made of various materials.

There are several types of storm sewer systems, which differ in the principle of operation:

1. An open storm sewer system is channels, ditches made of concrete, tiles, gravel, etc. Rainwater flows down the rain-receiving structures and enters the closed system. Stormwater drainage is carried out by gravity.

2. The closed storm sewer system consists of pipes, wells and water receivers. Pipes for collecting and moving water run underground. Water from the roof is removed through an external drainage system or through a pipe inside the building. Rainwater enters the underground sewer, then it enters the central sewer.

3. Mixed storm sewer systems are a combination of open and closed systems that effectively collect and drain water from the surface.

The features of each type of storm sewer system depend on the place of application and the volume of wastewater. Open storm sewer systems are easy to maintain, but can be unaesthetic. Closed systems are more efficient, but require more careful maintenance and control. Mixed storm sewer systems combine the advantages of both types and are the optimal choice for many facilities.

The choice of the type of storm sewer system depends on the specific conditions and tasks assigned to the drainage system. It is important to choose the right system to ensure effective rainwater management and minimize the risk of flooding and destruction of settlements.

The city uses a closed system, using underground pipes. It is allowed to use an open system, only for low-rise buildings, small networks and parks.

The creation of documents on the storm sewer system is important for environmental protection, improvement of cities and industrial enterprises. To create a storm sewer system project, you need to know the type of soil in order to calculate how deep the pipes will be laid. Also, to calculate the design of a storm sewer system, you need to know how much water falls in the form of precipitation. This can be found out from the average annual data on the amount of water on the earth's surface.

For example, if groundwater is available, the project must include a drainage system. Geodetic surveys are needed to create a pipe plan. There are also technical specifications provided by the organization operating the storm sewer system, they determine the location where the new network will be connected.

The design of a storm sewer system is carried out according to a set of rules. The algorithm for performing hydraulic calculations, the minimum diameter and slope of the pipeline, the distances between the inspection wells, and the location of the rainwater outlets are determined.

The set of rules includes the following documents:

1. An explanatory note explaining the selected water drainage scheme, showing, based on technical and economic indicators, why the selected scheme is the most optimal;

2. A drawing that contains a network laying plan, a profile indicating elevation marks, a table of sewer and rainwater wells; a specification of materials and equipment.

To choose the right type of storm sewer system and its installation, the following factors should be taken into account:

1. The performance of the projected storm sewer systems. This is necessary to select the correct pipe diameter

2. The slope of the pipes. The indicator of the hydraulic section of the pipe and gutter is important for calculations

3. The depth of the pipes. There are no specific indicators of the depth of pipe laying. When calculating, it is important that the water does not stagnate

It is also worth paying attention to the installation of a storm sewer system. The installation of the storm sewer system is carried out in the following order:

1. Installation of large elements — collectors and wells

2. Installation of trays, sand traps, rain collectors

3. Connection of elements by pipes

If necessary, use thermal insulation and waterproofing

4. Testing of storm sewer systems to identify installation errors

5. Strengthening of trays, rain collectors with concrete mortar

The construction of a storm sewer system is an important stage in the safety and comfort of the urban environment, protecting buildings and structures from the negative effects of floods and destruction. One of the important components of the infrastructure of the settlement is the storm sewer system. This system is responsible for collecting and diverting rain and meltwater, stopping possible flooding of buildings and roads.

Let's list the main stages of the construction of a storm sewer system:

The first stage of construction of storm sewer systems is excavation. These include the creation of trenches and pits for the installation of pipes and wells. The depth of trenches and ditches depends on the terrain features and system requirements.

Earthworks can be carried out manually or using special equipment. During excavation, it is important to carefully plan and follow all of the above rules.

After the completion of the excavation work, the installation of pipes and wells follows. Pipes can be made of various materials, for example, concrete, plastic, steel. Wells are used to collect water before it is discharged into a collector or sewage treatment plant. The installation of pipes and wells also requires detailed planning. It is necessary to take into account the features of the relief, the depth of groundwater and other factors. The depth of laying pipelines depends on many factors. For example, it depends on the type of soil, material, pipe diameter, climatic conditions, and method of pipe laying. The minimum laying is assumed to be 300 millimeters deeper than the freezing value (for pipes with a diameter of up to 500 millimeters), 500 meters deeper – for pipes with a diameter of more than 500 millimeters.

The second stage of the construction of storm sewer systems is the installation of equipment that ensures the operation of the system. These can be rain collectors, pumps, filters and other devices. The equipment must be installed in accordance with safety and reliability requirements. Installation requires high qualifications and experience. At this stage, it is necessary to comply with all technical requirements and safety standards.

After the installation of the equipment, the system is checked for operability. This is testing all the elements of the system. In order to make sure that they are in good working order and ready for operation. The system health check should identify and eliminate possible problems before putting the facility into operation.

The third and final stage of the construction of storm sewer systems is the commissioning of the facility. This is the preparation of documentation and delivery of the system to the customer. After the facility is delivered, the system is ready for use. The commissioning of the facility is an important stage, which confirms the successful completion of the construction of a storm sewer system.

Storm sewer systems are an important part of urban infrastructure and settlements. But when designing and pre-using, it is necessary to take into account environmental aspects that help not to destroy the environment and reduce pollution of rivers, lakes, seas, etc.

Storm sewer systems can protect the environment by preventing flooding and erosion of the soil surface. Properly designed sewage systems save rainwater collection, they direct water to wastewater treatment plants that reduce the risk of environmental pollution. Due to system flaws in the process of water purification, garbage, oil, chemicals, etc. can enter the sewer network. This negatively affects the water quality in rivers, lakes and seas, and has a detrimental effect on fish and other living organisms.

To reduce water pollution, it is necessary to apply modern methods of rainwater treatment, including the use of filters, flow meters and other technologies that allow the removal of pollutants from rainwater. It is also important to carry out regular maintenance and monitoring of storm sewer systems to prevent accidents and dirty water leaks.

Therefore, the ecological importance of storm sewer systems is an important point for ensuring environmental safety. It is important to pay great attention to environmental protection and reducing water pollution in the design and operation of storm sewer systems.

The owner is responsible for the suitability and technical condition of the storm sewer system. Cleaning is included in the work on the maintenance of the house territory.

The main thing in the operation of a storm sewer system is to check for the absence of blockages that block the discharge of wastewater.

After prolonged rains (for 2-3 days), it is necessary to perform an extraordinary leveling and inspection of load-bearing structures, identify places of accumulation of water and take measures to eliminate them.

The results of the inspection are recorded in the acts, they indicate: descriptions of deformations, places of their development, time of detection, measures taken to eliminate the problem.

Organizations that serve the housing stock must provide preventive sewage cleaning in densely populated houses at least once every three months, as well as cleaning of the storm sewer system at least twice a year.

There are several ways to clean storm sewer systems: thermal, chemical, hydrodynamic, mechanical.

1. The thermal method is a method of removing debris due to the effects of steam and boiling water

2. The chemical method is a method of removing blockages by chemicals. In the process of the chemical method, reagents are used that corrode deposits, but do not damage the plastic.

3. The hydrodynamic method is a method in which blockages are washed away with high water pressure.

The mechanical method uses crowbars and cables, as well as manual cleaning. Hydrodynamic and mechanical methods are most often used.

In conclusion, it should be said that the storm sewer system is widely used in the urban environment, the frequency of use depends on the climatic characteristics of the area. Even with low operating intervals, it is important to take into account all requirements and comply with them during design and installation.

 

References:

  1. Alekseev M. I. Organization of the diversion of surface (rain and melt) runoff from urbanized territories: a textbook for universities / M. I. Alekseev, A.M. Kurganov.—M.: Publishing House DIA; St. Petersburg: SPbGASU—2000.
  2. Galkin Yu. A. Basic solutions for the system of collection, regulation and treatment of wastewater from industrial stormwater sewerage in Yekaterinburg / Yu. A. Galkin // Water supply and sewerage.—2014.—№ 1–2.
  3. Storm sewer design. [Electronic resource]. URL: https://mco-7.ru/blog/proektirovanie-livnevoj-kanalizatsii
  4. Construction of storm sewers: [Electronic resource]. https://europlast-ltd.ru/statji/stroitelstvo-livnevoj-kanalizatsii-vidy-materialy-osobennosti-montazha
  5. Voronov Yu. V. Drainage and wastewater treatment [Text] : textbook for universities / Yu. V. Voronov, S. V. Yakovlev ; under the general editorship of Yu. V. Voronov - Ed. 4th, reprint. and additional - M. : Publishing House of the Association of Construction Universities, 2006.
  6. Pushnikov A. Yu. Assessment of the value of rainwater inflow to wastewater treatment plants//Plumbing, Heating, Air Conditioning. 2014.
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