Телефон: 8-800-350-22-65
WhatsApp: 8-800-350-22-65
Telegram: sibac
Прием заявок круглосуточно
График работы офиса: с 9.00 до 18.00 Нск (5.00 - 14.00 Мск)

Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 12(266)

Рубрика журнала: Технические науки

Секция: Архитектура, Строительство

Скачать книгу(-и): скачать журнал часть 1, скачать журнал часть 2, скачать журнал часть 3, скачать журнал часть 4, скачать журнал часть 5, скачать журнал часть 6

Библиографическое описание:
Makarova D., Bushmanova A., Yudina I.I. EXPORT OF STONE AND TILE BUILDING MATERIALS FROM CHINA // Студенческий: электрон. научн. журн. 2024. № 12(266). URL: https://sibac.info/journal/student/266/323318 (дата обращения: 18.04.2024).

EXPORT OF STONE AND TILE BUILDING MATERIALS FROM CHINA

Makarova Daria

student, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,

Russia, Moscow

Bushmanova Alina

student, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,

Russia, Moscow

Yudina Irina Ivanovna

teacher, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,

Russia, Moscow

ЭКСПОРТ КАМЕННЫХ И ПЛИТОЧНЫХ СТРОИТЕЛЬНЫХ МАТЕРИАЛОВ ИЗ КИТАЯ

 

Макарова Дарья Олеговна

студент, Национальный исследовательский Московский государственный строительный университет,

РФ, г. Москва

Бушманова Алина Дмитриевна

студент, Национальный исследовательский Московский государственный строительный университет,

РФ, г. Москва

Юдина Ирина Ивановна

преподаватель, Национальный исследовательский Московский государственный строительный университет,

РФ, г. Москва

 

ABSTRACT

This article discusses the issue of exporting stone and tile building materials from China; a description is given of the types of stone and tile materials used in the construction industry with a separate description of natural stone mined in China; describes the process of transporting natural stone from China; lists the advantages of cooperation with China in the field of export of construction materials to Russia.

АННОТАЦИЯ

В данной статье рассматривается вопрос экспорта каменных и плиточных строительных материалов из Китая; дается  описание видов каменных и плиточных материалов, применяемых в строительной индустрии с отдельным описанием природного камня, добываемого в Китае; описывается, процесс транспортировки природного камня из Китая; перечисляются преимущества сотрудничества с Китаем в области экспорта строительных материалов в Россию.

 

Keywords: building materials, tiles, natural stone, export, China.

Ключевые слова: строительные материалы, плитка, природный камень, экспорт, Китай.

 

Nowadays, building materials made of stone and tiles have a wide range of applications, from building foundations to creating architectural projects and interior design. Export of stone and tiles from China is one of the most popular sectors of foreign trade in our country. China is one of the largest producers and exporters of marble, granite and other stone products.

The most important characteristic of natural stone is its durability. Buildings and structures made of natural stone and erected decades ago are still preserved unchanged. Natural stone and tiles give the building an original appearance that distinguishes it from others. Such building materials have virtually no disadvantages, with the exception of the large initial weight and fairly large material costs at the construction stage.

In construction as facing and monumental stone are most often used; each of its subtypes is used for different purposes and each has certain requirements.

Facing stone is used for external and internal finishing of buildings and structures. It is also used in the decorative design of parks and squares, adding aesthetics and integrity to the architectural design. The requirements for facing stone include the absence of cracks in the material, the ability to saw, to process and to polish the product.

Both facing and monumental stones are stones of natural origin. Many types are used for construction, the most popular of which are limestone, marble, granite, slate and sandstone.

As for tiles, no less stringent requirements are imposed on them, for example, strength and tightness, fire resistance and resistance to weather conditions. Tiles can also be used for various purposes, interior and exterior decoration. There are facade, ceramic, floor and decorative tiles. Each of them is used for appropriate purposes. Facade tiles are suitable for the reconstruction of old buildings, for cladding foam concrete, brick and other surfaces. Ceramic tiles are mainly used for cladding coatings inside and outside the building, they are also used for finishing floors and decorating walls, floor tiles respectively for finishing the floor, when decorating rooms.

Modern construction is developing at a rapid pace. Residential buildings, enterprises, factories are being built and, naturally, this requires more and more resources every year.

In recent years, China has actively developed its construction industry and it has become the largest construction market in the world. Nowadays, China is building many high-rise buildings, infrastructure facilities and roads, and this country is also carrying out large-scale urban and regional development projects. China is also the main exporter of natural stone around the world. This country has extensive natural resources, and it can supply the construction industries of many world countries with decorative and finishing stone for many decades.

Mountainous areas in China are the main deposits of various types of building and finishing stones. Chinese granite for flooring is very popular and in demand all over the world, since its price in comparison with other suppliers is much lower, and the material itself is of high quality. It is presented in a wide range of colors; each deposit specializes in the extraction of granite of a special color and pattern, which are in no way repeatable or comparable.

Granite deposits in China are mainly found in the northern and northwestern regions, as well as in areas adjacent to Tibet. Huge uninhabited areas store inexhaustible reserves of minerals.

A huge number of cities and regions have already been rebuilt with the help of Chinese stone; an example is Shanghai, the capital of China. The city of Shanghai has been recently associated with a city of “slums” and is it currently one of the most progressive and fastest growing cities. Majestic skyscrapers, built using that same Chinese stone and tile, evoke delight and admiration. Such large and reliable projects require high-quality material in the form of marble and granite finishing slabs that meets the requirements of safety and aesthetics at the same time.

The production of these materials is located here in China, They are produced in both small and large enterprises throughout the country. The cleaning and processing of marble, granite and other stone is carried out using special equipment. In addition, about 70 percent of the stone mined in the world is processed in China.

Transportation of stone from China to Russia is carried out using sea vessels. Stone or tile materials are loaded into a container, 20-foot and 40-foot containers are commonly used for this purpose. The amount of stone loaded into one container is small and, according to standards, the total weight should not exceed 21 tons for a 20-foot container and 42 tons for a 40-foot container, respectively, otherwise such a container will either not be loaded onto the ship, or you will have to pay extra for the overweight.

Upon arrival in the country of destination, building materials undergo customs clearance; the import duty rate depends on the correctly selected code of commodity nomenclature for foreign economic activity. The commodity nomenclature foreign economic activity code (HS code) is a digital code that simplifies trade between countries. Each code corresponds to a specific product or product category. In addition, for each imported building material, stone, stone products or tiles, there must be appropriate documentation indicating the country where the material was extracted.

There are also many deposits of natural stone in Russia. It is transported within the country and also outside its borders. But nevertheless, almost every construction company and enterprise seeks to expand its cooperation abroad. Cooperation with China has many advantages, such as:

  • Low prices from suppliers and for transportation of stone materials
  • High quality of exported resources
  • Cooperation with the country directly, without intermediaries
  • High speed of transportation to the destination country

In conclusion we would like to say that it is very important for Russia to develop the construction sector, so cooperation with countries such as China will certainly lead to success and to the further development of the Russian construction segment.

 

References:

  1. All about stone. [Electronic resource]. URL:https://riel--stone-ru.turbopages.org/riel-stone.ru/s/vse-o-kamne
  2. Ceramic tile. [Electronic resource]. URL:https://laparet-ru.turbopages.org/laparet.ru/s/glossary/keramicheskaya-plitka/
  3. Ceramic tiles and their use in construction.[Electronic resource].  URL:https://planetaplitki.ru/vsye-o-plitke/keramicheskaya-plitka-i-ee-primenenie-pri-stroitelstve/?ysclid=lu36mp1spc861620677
  4. How goods are transported from China to Russia. [Electronic resource].  URL:https://eurasia-logistics.ru/articles/biznes-s-kitaem/kak-vozyat-tovar-iz-kitaya-v-rossiyu-/?ysclid=lu36ow6zq3807108277
  5. Natural stone in architecture and construction. [Electronic resource]. URL:https://www.artmarblestudio.ru/articles/prirodnyj-kamen-v-arxitekture-i-stroitelstve/
  6. Stone delivery from China. [Electronic resource].  URL:http://orientline.ru/news/dostavka-kamnya-iz-kitaya/
Удалить статью(вывести сообщение вместо статьи): 

Оставить комментарий

Форма обратной связи о взаимодействии с сайтом
CAPTCHA
Этот вопрос задается для того, чтобы выяснить, являетесь ли Вы человеком или представляете из себя автоматическую спам-рассылку.