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Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 30(242)

Рубрика журнала: Технические науки

Секция: Энергетика

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Библиографическое описание:
Volodchenko S. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THERMAL INSULATION ELEMENTS USED IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR IN ALMATY REGION. // Студенческий: электрон. научн. журн. 2023. № 30(242). URL: https://sibac.info/journal/student/242/301188 (дата обращения: 23.05.2024).

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THERMAL INSULATION ELEMENTS USED IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR IN ALMATY REGION.

Volodchenko Semen

Master's program "Strategic management of renewable energy and energy efficiency", Kazakh-German University "DKU",

Kazakhstan, Almaty

Sharipov Rashid

научный руководитель,

Professor, Dr., Kazakh-German University "DKU",  Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology,

Kazakhstan, Almaty

ABSTRACT

Insulation is a material that is installed on the exterior surface of a building to create a barrier that reduces the heat exchange between the external environment and the interior of the building. It helps to reduce heat loss in the winter and reduce air heating in the summer. Insulation can be made of various materials such as mineral wool, polystyrene, eco wool, foam plastic, polyurethane foam, and so on. Many insulators have a cellular structure that creates a thermal insulation barrier that hinders the movement of heat through the walls, roof, or floor of a building. The use of insulation allows to reduce heating and air conditioning costs. Glass wool and rock wool are considered the most popular insulators in the world due to their well-studied characteristics such as non-flammability, absence of mold, and water repellency. Eco wool is a moderately combustible material, but it remains a cheap and environmentally friendly alternative.

This work addresses the issue of thermal insulation of one-story and two-story houses in Almaty, taking into account the climatic conditions of the region. The objects have a living area of 150 square meters and consist of brick walls with a double layer. The study is conducted in two variants: with insulation and without insulation. Special attention is paid to the insulation required to provide comfortable temperatures in the winter. The results of the study can be used to increase the energy efficiency of buildings and reduce the negative impact on the environment in Almaty and the Almaty region.

 

Keywords: comparative analysis, thermal insulation.

 

How works thermal insulation in buildings

Thermal insulation in buildings is the process of reducing heat transfer between the internal and external environment in order to ensure comfortable indoor conditions and reduce energy consumption for heating and air conditioning. The principle of thermal insulation in buildings is based on preventing heat transfer through walls, roofs, floors and windows.

Special materials with high thermal insulation are used to reduce heat transfer. These materials have low thermal conductivity and are able to retain heat inside the building. Examples of such materials include mineral wool, fiberglass, expanded polystyrene (styrofoam), polyurethane foam (foam), and others. To prevent heat transfer through the walls and roof, insulation materials are installed in the cavities between the walls and in the ceiling spaces. This creates a barrier that hinders the movement of heat from the inside out and vice versa. The internal and external surfaces of the building can also be covered with layers of thermal insulation materials. For example, the walls can be lined with drywall having thermal insulation properties, or the exterior walls can be covered with a special insulating finish.

It is important that the insulation is properly installed and maintains its integrity. Even small cracks, cracks or damages can significantly reduce the effectiveness of insulation. Do not forget about ventilation. Buildings should be well ventilated to ensure fresh air circulation and avoid excessive humidity, which can reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation.

The use of thermal insulation in buildings can significantly reduce energy consumption for heating and cooling, reduce carbon dioxide emissions and create more comfortable living and working conditions indoors.

The requirement for the use of thermal protection of buildings

Throughout history, humanity has used energy to achieve its goals, whether it be smelting iron or heating homes. Currently, in most countries in Central Asia, materials such as clay, straw, and wood shavings are still used for insulating private homes. In the past, thermal insulation was not a separate industry and existed only to a certain extent, so there was no need to use additional materials or manufacture anything for insulation. Today, the loss of precious heat through the walls of an ordinary residential building amounts to 30-40% of the energy produced by thermal devices.

Nothing has changed in our time, and now humanity faces a new task: to meet new standards and become more competitive. Now, renewable energy sources are being used, but in order to use them more efficiently, it is necessary to minimize all losses in energy systems.

The project is relevant because it is of great importance in the field of renewable energy sources and energy conservation in general. The country has favorable conditions for its implementation both at the legislative and raw material levels. Kazakhstan has had a system of state support for renewable energy sources since 2009. There are also regulatory acts that establish and shape standards for thermal protection of buildings through the energy efficiency class indicator of the building. In addition, the importance of using renewable energy sources has been noted in the internal policy of energy development. Therefore, the question of efficient use of generated energy arises sharply. And achieving this high energy efficiency with minimal costs. This work is relevant and significant for the development of renewable energy and the reduction of negative impact on the environment.

The aim of the research is to demonstrate the necessity of thermal insulation for the use of non-traditional sources of energy in the private sector of Almaty and Almaty region.

The objectives of the research are:

  • To determine the necessary materials for conducting thermal insulation of walls.
  • To determine the minimum required insulation of walls to obtain a residential building of class A, B, C, D.
  • To determine the most economically advantageous set of wall insulation.

The subject of the research is the use of thermal insulation for the application of non-traditional sources of energy.

The object of the research includes materials and technologies used for the production of thermal insulation materials, their properties and characteristics, as well as methods of their application to increase the efficiency of using non-traditional sources of energy. The economic aspects of using thermal insulation for the application of non-traditional sources of energy in the private sector are also studied.

The methodological basis of the research includes mathematical and computer modeling for data analysis and forecasting results, which allows determining the influence of thermal insulation on the efficiency of using thermal energy.

The scientific novelty of this project lies in studying the effectiveness of using thermal insulation in private houses in Almaty and Almaty region. This research allows demonstrating the most efficient use of energy resources of traditional sources such as oil, gas, and coal. This is of great importance for addressing climate change issues, as reducing the consumption of traditional sources of energy contributes to a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions.

The project may also study the use of different types of thermal insulation materials and determine the most effective ones for specific energy source conditions. The economic efficiency of using thermal insulation can also be studied, which is important for making decisions about its implementation in various sectors.

Thus, the use of thermal insulation for both renewable and traditional sources of energy has the potential to address current environmental and energy issues and can be an important contribution to the development of sustainable energy.

1.1 The history of the appearance of insulation and the principle of their operation

The principle of insulation is to create a barrier that reduces the heat exchange between the external environment and the interior of a building. Insulation helps to reduce heat loss during winter and minimize heat gain during summer.

Insulation is typically installed on the exterior surfaces of walls, roofs, or floors to prevent the penetration of cold, heat, and moisture. Insulation can be made from various materials, such as mineral wool, polystyrene foam, eco wool, expanded polystyrene, polyurethane foam, and so on.

Many insulators have a cellular structure that allows them to retain air and create an air film that acts as a thermal insulation barrier. This barrier impedes the transfer of heat from inside the building to the outside during winter and vice versa during summer.

The main principle of insulation is to reduce the amount of heat transmitted through the walls, roof, or floor of a building, which helps to lower heating and air conditioning costs.

In the 19th century, engineers and scientists in the USA, France, and Germany experimented with the production of stone wool, but it was not until the end of the century that it was industrialized by an American, Charles Hall. Prior to him, experiments used stone slag, which had many negative effects, including on the health of workers. Stone wool, also known as "rock wool," had several advantages: it was thermal and sound insulation, non-combustible, and did not allow cold air to pass through.

Fiberglass insulation was invented in 1934 by an American named Games Slayter, who also developed the technology for producing it from glass fiber.

Cellulose insulation made from recycled newspaper was also developed in the 19th century, and in the 1930s, cellulose insulation began to be developed in Germany. Ecovata is a loose-fill or blown material that is distributed using special blowing machines. Its main disadvantage is its moderate flammability, but its advantages, such as affordability, ease of installation, versatility, and environmental friendliness, allow it to occupy leading positions in markets in many countries around the world, including Finland, the United States, Canada, and Europe.

Therefore, fiberglass and rock wool are considered the most popular insulators worldwide. Their characteristics are well studied, they do not burn, do not mold, and do not absorb moisture, providing reliable protection against cold and noise. In contrast to them, ecovata belongs to the category of moderately flammable materials and is not as widespread, however, it remains a more affordable and environmentally friendly alternative. Thanks to its ease of installation and versatility, it occupies one of the leading positions among insulators in Finland, the United States, Canada, and several European countries.

In 1937, German chemist Otto Bayer first obtained polyurethane foam, which quickly found application in aviation and rocketry due to its lightweight, strength, and ability to withstand extreme temperatures. It is non-flammable, has the lowest thermal conductivity of all known insulation materials, but has limited sound insulation, zero vapor permeability, and a high price.

1.2 Thermal insulation nowadays

Thermal insulation of private buildings plays an important role in ensuring the comfort of residents and reducing heating costs. Insufficient thermal insulation can lead to significant heat losses, which can lead to increased heating costs and increased greenhouse gas emissions, which is harmful to the environment.

According to research by the US Energy Information Resources Agency (EIA), thermal insulation can reduce energy consumption for heating and air conditioning by up to 50%. This means that the use of thermal insulation in buildings can reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and other harmful substances into the environment. [1, p. 7]

One of the most popular materials for thermal insulation is mineral wool. It has a good thermal insulation ability, and is also able to interfere with sound waves, which makes it effective for use in private buildings. According to a study conducted by Owens Corning, the use of mineral wool can reduce energy costs by 20-50%, depending on the geographical location of the building. [2, p. 27]

Another important aspect of thermal insulation is its impact on the health of residents. Poor thermal insulation can lead to the formation of mold, which can cause various diseases of the respiratory system and allergies. Some materials for thermal insulation can also be hazardous to health, so it is important to choose safe and environmentally friendly materials. [3, p. 11]

The "Review of the State Policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of energy conservation and energy efficiency", prepared by the Energy Charter Secretariat in 2014, generally reflects the importance of thermal insulation for improving the energy efficiency of buildings in Kazakhstan. The report notes that in Kazakhstan there is a significant potential to reduce energy consumption in buildings, including by improving thermal insulation. [4, p. 7]

The report also notes that in Kazakhstan there are a number of problems related to the quality of thermal insulation of buildings, such as low thermal insulation capacity of materials, insufficient knowledge of thermal insulation technologies, etc. In this regard, the report recommends the introduction of new technologies and materials to improve the efficiency of thermal insulation of buildings in Kazakhstan. [4, p. 15]

The level of thermal insulation in residential buildings in Kazakhstan varies significantly depending on the locality, the year of construction of the building and its design features. However, in general, the level of thermal insulation of residential buildings in Kazakhstan is insufficient and critically low. At the same time, more than 50% of residential buildings need modernization in order to improve their thermal insulation.

Various materials are used for the construction of private residential buildings in Almaty, depending on the budget and other factors. Some of the most common materials used for the construction of residential buildings in Almaty include:

  • Brick, because brick walls are one of the most common types of walls for residential buildings around the world. Brick walls retain heat relatively well and have good sound insulation.
  • Concrete. Concrete walls and ceilings are widely used in residential buildings. This material has good strength and durability, and also protects against sound and vibration.
  • Aerated concrete or foam concrete are lightweight silicate materials that are used for the construction of walls, partitions, ceilings and other elements of buildings. Aerated concrete and foam concrete are materials in which porous cells are filled with gas, usually carbon dioxide or air, which increases the thermal conductivity resistance of the material.

Enclosing structures (walls, windows, roofs, floors) of standard houses have a fairly large heat transfer coefficient. This leads to significant losses: for example, heat loss of an ordinary brick building of 250 - 350 kWh per m2 of heated area per year. [5, p 3]

 

Figure 1. Cold bridges (source [6, p.10])

 

Effective thermal insulation of all enclosing surfaces, including walls, floor, ceiling, attic, basement and foundation, is an important aspect of the construction of private homes. In such houses, it is also necessary to eliminate the "cold bridges" in the enclosing structures. As a result of proper thermal insulation and elimination of "cold bridges", heat loss through the enclosing surfaces can be reduced to 15 kWh per 1 m2 of heated area per year. This is much less than in ordinary private homes, and allows you to keep warm inside the house, not allowing cold inside.

Cold bridges can lead to significant heat losses in the building and increased heating costs. They can also cause condensation on walls and ceilings, which in turn can contribute to the development of mold and mildew, as well as lead to other health problems.

Therefore, it is important to properly consider cold bridges in the design and construction of buildings and take measures to minimize them, for example, install special seals and apply additional layers of thermal insulation in these areas. Thus, the elimination of cold bridges is a necessary measure to ensure effective thermal insulation of buildings and reduce heating costs.

Thus, proper thermal insulation is an important factor for comfort, economy and sustainability in private buildings. Its application can help reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, reduce heating and air conditioning costs, and improve the health of residents.

1.3 Description of the simulated object and environmental parameters

The object in question is a one-storey house with an area of 150 m2 with brick walls, consisting of one floor and having a living area of 150 square meters. And a two-storey house with the same living area.  Two options are considered with and without insulation.

These facilities are located in Almaty, therefore, the parameters of the external conditions are accepted accordingly. The climatic conditions of Almaty affect the requirements for thermal insulation and ventilation of buildings, especially in winter, when it is necessary to provide a sufficient level of thermal insulation to maintain a comfortable temperature indoors.

During the construction of the walls, double brickwork was used. Brick walls provide a solid and reliable construction, as well as good sound insulation. Ceramic brick is used as a brick material.

Paying attention to the regulatory documents, we will find the classification table of energy efficiency of buildings:

Table 1.

Energy efficiency classes of buildings (source [7, p. 46])

 

 

Classes

Name of the energy efficiency class

The value of the deviation of the calculated (actual) value of the specific consumption of thermal energy for heating and ventilation of the building from the normative value , %

 

Recommended activities

For new and reconstructed buildings

А++

   А+

А

Very high

More – 60

from -50 to – 60

from -40 to – 50

Economic incentives

  В+

В

High

from -30 to – 40

from -15 to -30

Economic

incentives

 С+

     С

С-

Normal

from - 5 to – 15

from + 5 to – 5

from + 15 to +5

 

D

Lowered

from + 15.1 to + 50

Reconstruction of the building

E

Very low

More 50

Energy-saving

measures

 The value of the deviation of the calculated (actual) value of the specific consumption of thermal energy for heating and ventilation of the building q des to normative value q reg it should be calculated using the formula:

eff = [(qhdes - qhreg)/ qhreg] ×100%,                                                                        (1)

The normative value of the specific consumption of thermal energy for heating and ventilation of the building qhreg it can be determined by the tables specified in the source [7, p. 47] (Table 2 и 3). In this case it is 93,5 kJ/(м2×o day) and 102,0 kJ/(м2×o day) for one-storey and two-storey buildings, respectively.

The energy efficiency classification is usually a letter scale with classes from A to E, where Class A is the most energy efficient and Class E is the most inefficient.

As can be seen from the table in the column "Recommended measures", recommendations are given to the state for providing and confirming the efficiency class by the consumer or owner. In addition, the assessment of the energy efficiency class of a building can be used to assess its cost, as well as to establish recommendations for improving its energy efficiency. For example, a building with a high energy efficiency class may consume less energy and cost less to operate than a building with a low energy efficiency class.

Table 2.

The basic level of the normalized specific consumption of thermal energy for heating and ventilation of low-rise residential buildings: single-family detached and blocked, multi-apartment and mass industrial production  qreq, kJ/(м2×oC×day) (source [7, p. 54])

Heated area of houses, m2

Number of floors

1

2

3

4

60 or less

119,0

-

-

-

100

106,0

115,0

-

-

150

93,5

102,0

110,5

-

250

85,9

89,0

93,5

98,0

400

-

76,5

81,0

85,0

600

-

68,0

72,0

76,5

1000 or more

-

59,5

64,0

68,0

 

Table 3.

The basic level of the normalized specific consumption of thermal energy for heating and ventilation of residential and public buildings qreq (source [7, p. 56])

Types of buildings

Number of floors of buildings

1 3

4, 5

6, 7

8, 9

10, 11

12 or more

1. Residential, hotels,

dormitories

По таблице 2

72,0

[26,5]

68,0

[24,5]

65,0

[23,5]

61,0

[22,0]

59,5

[21,5]

2. Public, except those listed in items 3, 4 and

5 of this table

[37,5],

[32,5],

[30,5]*

 

[27,0]

 

[26,5]

 

[25,0]

 

[24,0]

 

-

3. Polyclinics and medical institutions, boarding schools

[29], [28], [27]*

 

[26,5]

 

[26,5]

 

[24,5]

 

[24,0]

 

-

4. Preschool

institutions, hospices

[38]

-

-

-

-

-

5. After-sales service

[19,5],

[18,5],

[18,0]*

 

[17,0]

 

[17,0]

 

-

 

-

 

-

6. Administrative purposes (offices)

[30,5],

[29,0],

[28,0]*

 

[23,5]

 

[20,5]

 

[18,5]

 

[17,0]

 

[17,0]

 

1.4 Calculations of specific heat energy consumption and determination of the efficiency class of the building

Estimated specific consumption of thermal energy for heating buildings during the heating period qhdes , kJ/(м2 ·°С·day) или kJ/(м3 ·°С·day), it should be determined by the formula:

qhdes = 103 × Qhy / (Ah ×Dd)                                                                                   (2)

Ah - heated (total) area of the building, m2;

The magnitude of the degree-day Dd, °С·day, during the heating period , it should be calculated by the formula

Dd = (tint- tht)-zht,                                                                                          (3)

where, tint - estimated indoor air temperature, °С;

Duration of the heating period zht, day, and the average outdoor temperature during the heating period tht, °С, should be taken according to СП РК 2.04-01-2017* [5, p. 20].

The value of the total heat loss of the building through external enclosing structures Qh, MJ/year, it should be calculated using the formula:

Qh = 0,0864 × Kmtr×Dd×Aesum                                                                                (4)

where, Kmtr - the reduced coefficient of heat transfer through the external enclosing building structures, Вт/(м2·°С);

Aesum- the total area of external enclosing structures, including exterior walls, windows, covering (overlap) of the upper floor and basement, m2;

Kmtr = 1/Rmtr                                                                                                                      (5)

where, Rmtr  - heat transfer resistance (м²•˚С)/W

By creating a mathematical model in the "SmartCalc" program [8]. Where the wall layers and their thickness are selected, parameters such as heat transfer resistance R, finding the plane of maximum moisture and heat losses through a square meter of the enclosing structure are calculated.

The following mandatory layers with parameters are present in this model:

  • Drywall (GCL)(2500x1200x15 mm), density ρ = 800 kg/m³, specific heat capacity c = 0,84 kJ/(kg•°С), coefficient of thermal conductivity λ = 0,15 W/(m•°С), Vapor permeability coefficient μ = 0,075 mg/(m•h•Pa).
  • Laying on a perlite solution of ceramic hollow stone (250x120x138 mm), γo = 1200 kg/m3, Density ρ = 1140 kg/m³, specific heat capacity c = 0,88 kJ/(kg•°С), coefficient of thermal conductivity λ = 0,25 W/(m•°С), vapor permeability coefficient μ = 0,16 mg/(m•h•Pa).

These graphs show the layers of a simple brick wall and the inner lining of this wall – drywall. In addition, this graph shows the temperature and Dew Point temperature lines. If these two lines intersect, then condensation and humidification of the wall will begin at this point, which will not only increase the thermal conductivity, but also endanger human life due to the formation of mold and dampness.

 

• Temperature; The temperature of the "Dew Point"

1)[15 mm] Drywall (GCL);  2) [250 mm] Masonry on a perlite solution of ceramic hollow stone (250x120x138 mm), = 1200 kg/m3

Figure 2. Graph of heat transfer resistance. (source [8])

 

Dimensionless vapor permeability resistance

Also saturated with steam air

1) [15 mm] Drywall (GCL); 2) [250 mm] Masonry on a perlite solution of ceramic hollow stone (250x120x138 mm), at = 1200 kg/m3

Figure 3. Graph of Finding the plane of maximum moisture. (source [8])

 

Thanks to these graphs, the heat transfer resistance of a given wall is determined and whether a condensation point is present in a given wall is viewed. After that, the calculation is carried out.

With the heat transfer resistance of this wall Rmtr =0,95 (m²•˚С)/W, let 's determine the reduced heat transfer coefficient through the external enclosing structures of the building by the formula (5):

Kmtr = 1,05 W/(m2·°С)                                                                                           (6)

After that, the value of the total heat loss of the building is determined through the external enclosing structures Qh, MJ/year, it should be calculated using the formula (4):

Qh = -1855,33 MJ/year                                                                                        (7)

The degree-day value is also determined Dd, according to the formula (3):

Dd = -136 °С·day                                                                                           (8)

After that, the estimated specific consumption of thermal energy for heating buildings for the heating period is determined:

qhdes = 90,95 kJ/(m2 ·°С·day)                                                                                   (9)

As a result , the efficiency class of the building is determined by the formula (1) and table 1.

eff = -2,73 %

According to Table 1, this building has an energy efficiency level of "C".

 

•Temperature; • The temperature of the "Dew Point"; Condensation zone

1) [15 mm] Drywall (GCL); 2) [250 mm] Masonry on a perlite solution of ceramic hollow stone (250x120x138 mm), = 1200 kg/m3; 3) [40 mm] Foam glass plates 80-100 kg/m3 .

Figure 4. Graph of heat transfer resistance. (source [8])

 

Dimensionless vapor permeability resistance

Also saturated with steam air

The plane of maximum humidification

1) [15 mm] Drywall (GCL); 2) [250 mm] Masonry on a perlite solution of ceramic hollow stone (250x120x138 mm), at = 1200 kg/m3; 3) [40 mm] Foam glass plates 80-100 kg/m3.

Figure 5. Graph of Finding the plane of maximum moisture. (source [8])

 

• Temperature; The temperature of the "Dew Point"; Condensation zone

1) [15 mm] Drywall (GCL); 2) [250 mm] Masonry on a perlite solution of ceramic hollow stone (250x120x138 mm), = 1200 kg/m3; 3) [50 mm] Extruded polystyrene foam (EPPS) 30 kg/m3.

Figure 6. Graph of heat transfer resistance. (source [8])

 

Dimensionless vapor permeability resistance

Also saturated with steam air

The plane of maximum humidification

1) [15 mm] Drywall (GCL); 2) [250 mm] Masonry on a perlite solution of ceramic hollow stone (250x120x138 mm), at = 1200 kg/m3; 3) [50 mm] Extruded polystyrene foam (EPPS) 30 kg/m3.

Figure 7. Graph of Finding the plane of maximum moisture. (source [8])

 

• Temperature; The temperature of the "Dew Point"; Condensation zone

1) [15 mm] Drywall (GCL); 2) [250 mm] Masonry on a perlite solution of ceramic hollow stone (250x120x138 mm), = 1200 kg/m3; 3) [50 mm] Mineral (stone) wool 25-45 kg/m3.

Figure 8. Graph of heat transfer resistance. (source [8])

 

Dimensionless vapor permeability resistance

Also saturated with steam air

The plane of maximum humidification

1) [15 mm] Drywall (GCL); 2) [250 mm] Masonry on a perlite solution of ceramic hollow stone (250x120x138 mm), at = 1200 kg/m3; 3) [50 mm] Mineral (stone) wool 25-45 kg/m3.

Figure 9. Graph of Finding the plane of maximum moisture. (source [8])

 

If steam protection is applied or the condensation curve is removed from the temperature curve in any other way, then positions 2 and 3 will acquire energy efficiency class "A". In addition, it is economically clear that it is not profitable for people to install insulation, since it will take much more money to buy and install. However, it does not take into account the fact that despite the almost non-existent savings, the house acquires significant thermal inertia, which allows you to maintain a comfortable temperature evenly distributed throughout the space.

Table 4.

Calculation results

Insulation

Energy efficiency level

eff  %

Condensation

Savings, tg per kW

The bare wall

С

-2,73

No

-

Foam glass plates 80-100 kg/m3

С

-2,73

Yes

30

Extruded polystyrene foam (EPPS) 30 kg/m3

В

-23,63

Yes

150

Mineral (stone) wool 25-45 kg/m3

А

-59,29

No

300

 

It is also worth paying attention to the fact that condensation occurs in positions 2 and 3, which no longer meets hygienic standards. In addition, even using the cheapest heat protection, namely position 4, the energy efficiency class of such a house corresponds to level "A". However, it is worth noting that such thermal protection has its own warranty periods, namely 8-10 years, after which it will need to be updated.

Since all other conditions for two-storey houses remain the same, it becomes possible to use the graphs shown in Figures (2-9). However, according to Table 2, the specific normalized heat consumption 102 kJ/(m2 ·°С·day), in this connection , the following table 5 is obtained.

Table 5.

Calculation results for a two-storey building

Insulation

Energy efficiency level

eff  %

Condensation

Savings, tg per kW

The bare wall

D

22,45

No

-

Foam glass plates 80-100 kg/m3

D

22,45

Yes

-110

Extruded polystyrene foam (EPPS) 30 kg/m3

В

-18,28

Yes

100

Mineral (stone) wool 25-45 kg/m3

А

-48,75

No

240

 

CONCLUSION

The use of insulation is important for ensuring comfortable temperatures inside buildings and reducing costs for heating and air conditioning. It allows for retaining heat in the winter and coolness in the summer, which significantly saves energy and money on electricity or gas. Unfortunately, in Kazakhstan, the tariffs for thermal energy are significantly lower than in Europe, as can be seen in calculations, indicating low profitability.

In addition, the use of insulation is an important factor for the environment. Thanks to insulation, the volume of emissions of carbon dioxide and other harmful substances into the atmosphere decreases. Also, when reducing energy consumption for heating and air conditioning, the burden on electricity production decreases, which, in turn, leads to a reduction in emissions of harmful substances in the process of energy production.

Insulation also helps to reduce noise and vibration effects, which can improve the quality of life inside the premises. Overall, the use of insulation not only saves money and increases the comfort of living but also contributes to improving the environmental situation in the world.

Insulation significantly reduces the costs of heating and air conditioning of buildings, which is a very important factor for saving money. With the right selection of materials and quality installation, insulation can reduce heat loss in a building by 30-50%. This significantly increases the energy efficiency of the building and allows for a reduction in energy costs.

In addition, the use of insulation has a positive impact on the environment. Reducing the costs of heating and air conditioning means reducing the volume of emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere. Insulation also allows for a reduction in energy and resource consumption, which, in turn, leads to a reduction in environmental pollution and a decrease in the need for the extraction and processing of natural resources.

Moreover, the use of insulation helps to improve the quality of life for people living and working in buildings. By reducing the costs of heating and air conditioning, insulation allows for a reduction in noise levels and improvement of the microclimate in the premises, which, in turn, positively affects the health and well-being of people.

Thus, the use of insulation has many advantages, including saving money, improving the environment, and increasing the quality of life for people. It is an important step towards sustainable development and protecting the environment.

In connection with the work done, the following conclusions and recommendations appear:

  1. External wall insulation - installation of thermal insulation panels on the outer surface of the wall and subsequent application of a protective layer.
  2. Internal wall insulation - installation of thermal insulation materials inside the room, on the inner surface of the walls, and subsequent application of finishing materials.
  3. "Wet facade" system - installation of an insulation layer on the outer surface of the wall, onto which a special mesh is fixed, followed by the application of a layer of cement-sand plaster.
  4. Use of insulation blocks when erecting walls - use of special blocks with high thermal insulation properties for wall construction.
  5. Combined method - a combination of different insulation methods, such as external and internal wall insulation.
  6. It is necessary to maintain dryness in the room and on the insulation materials to prevent mold and fungal growth. In case of leakage or damage to the roof, windows, or doors, the problem should be immediately addressed.
  7. During construction work, it is necessary to ensure that the insulation materials are correctly installed and tightly adhere to the walls and ceiling to prevent air and moisture from penetrating.
  8. It is recommended to use high-quality insulation materials from reputable manufacturers who have undergone appropriate certification and have guarantees against pests and fungi.

 

List of literature:

  1. U.S. Energy Information Administration, Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Importance and Impact., 2021. [in the Internet]. Available: https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/homes/energy-use-in-homes.php. [Accessed: January 2023].
  2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Indoor Air Quality and Energy Efficiency, 2021. [in the Internet]. Available: https://www.epa.gov/indoor-air-quality-iaq/indoor-air-quality-and-energy-efficiency. [Accessed: March 2023].
  3. Owens Corning, Mineral Wool Insulation Reduces Energy Use and Costs., 2021.. Available: https://www.owenscorning.com/insulation/commercial/building-science/mineral-wool-insulation-reduces-energy-use-and-costs. [Accessed: March 2023].
  4. С. Э. Х. и. А. KAZENERGY, in the Review of the state policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of energy conservation and energy efficiency, 2014.
  5. СП_РК_2.04-01-2017*, CONSTRUCTION CLIMATOLOGY, State standards in the field of architecture, urban planning and construction CODE OF RULES OF THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN, Astana: АО «КазНИИСА», 2019.
  6. G. O. Alexandrovich, "Building thermal insulation materials," Modern high-tech technologies. Regional application, т. IV, № 4, pp. 50-57, 2010.
  7. СП_РК_3.02-138-2013*, State standards in the field of architecture, urban planning and construction CODE OF RULES OF the REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN, Astana: АО «КазНИИСА», ТОО "ЗЦ АТСЭ", 2019.
  8. V. A. Kireev, SmatCalc," V. A. Kireev, 2013. Available: https://www.smartcalc.ru/thermocalc?&gp=502&rt=0&ct=0&os=0&ti=20&to=-10&hi=55&ho=85&ld0=150&le0=1&lt0=0&mm0=161&ld1=2500&le1=1&lt1=0&mm1=198&ld2=500&le2=1&lt2=0&mm2=571. [Accessed: March 2023].
  9. A.Sites, What is thermal insulation for? Types and properties of materials,. Available: https://www.shkolazhizni.ru/family/articles/25495/. [Accessed: March 2023].
  10. K. Y. Grigorievich, Alternative energy sources Financial and economic justification of an INTELLIGENT BUILDING, TOTAL GROUP, pp. 18-22, 2010.
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