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ANALYSIS OF THE REFLECTION OF THE PROBLEMATIC OF PSEUDO-EASTERN RELIGIOUS ASSOCIATIONS IN THE WORKS OF DOMESTIC SECULAR AND DENOMINATIONAL RESEARCHERS
This article examines the works of secular and confessional domestic authors on the issue of pseudo-Eastern religious groups. The religious pluralism that emerged in the post-Soviet era and the rise of globalization led to the development and spread of a number of new pseudo-Eastern religious organizations on the territory of the Russian Federation. The current relevance of this issue is reflected in the works of both secular and confessional domestic authors who are engaged in research in the field of new religious organizations.
Keywords: pseudo-Eastern religious groups, neo-Hinduism, yoga, pseudo-Eastern cult.
The issue of pseudo-Eastern religious organizations has attracted the attention of scholars and researchers in the past century, but it received the most serious attention and coverage at the turn of the century. The religious pluralism that emerged in the post-Soviet era and the rise of globalization led to the development and spread of a number of new pseudo-Eastern religious organizations on the territory of the Russian Federation. The current relevance of this issue is reflected in the works of both secular and confessional domestic authors who are engaged in research in the field of new religious organizations.
To determine which authors were able to reflect the issues of pseudo-Eastern religious organizations, it is necessary to understand their scientific authority. As a criterion, we will choose the volume of citations of the works of certain authors in various publications. According to the electronic scientific library elibrary.ru for the period from 2010 to 2020, there are 40 publications devoted to the study of the phenomenon of neo-Hinduism. After analyzing some of these publications, it was found that the most cited authors are A.L. Dvorkin and A.I. Khvyla-Olinter. In the article "Hindus and Hinduizers. On the Status of Followers of Non-Indian Neo-Hindu Cults" by S.V. Lobanov, materials from the works of E.G. Balagushkin and I.S. Ivanenko are used. Thus, conducting an analytical survey, a circle of domestic secular and confessional researchers was identified, whose works represent the greatest interest within the framework of this study.
Among the representatives of the confessional research direction on this topic, it is worth noting the works of former deacon and church historian A.L. Dvorkin. Several of his works are dedicated to the religious organization "International Society for Krishna Consciousness", including the encyclopedic article "International Society for Krishna Consciousness", a series of publications: "The International Society for Krishna Consciousness as a New Age Sect: (Using Christian Images and Concepts by its Ideologues)" and "The International Society for Krishna Consciousness as a 'New Age' Sect". In addition, in the book "Cultology. Totalitarian Sects. Experience of Systematic Research", A.L. Dvorkin thoroughly examines new religious movements and organizations, which he classifies as "totalitarian sects".
In addition to A.L. Dvorkin's confessional research approach, the Russian Orthodox Church cleric and publicist A.I. Khvyla-Olinter also characterizes pseudo-Eastern religious movements in his work "Spiritual Security and Spiritual Health of Man, Family, Society" as having a syncretic nature of teachings based on the foundations of traditional Eastern religions and Christianity, particularly Protestantism. The researcher also notes that the doctrines of such groups have an eclectic and dilettante character.
As secular non-confessional researchers of pseudo-Eastern new religious movements, whose works have a defining methodological value for contemporary studies on this topic, it is necessary to first consider the scientific activity of Soviet and Russian religious scholar E.G. Balagushkin, who in his work "Non-traditional Religions in Modern Russia" examines "neo-Buddhism as the main direction of pseudo-Eastern religious groups. The religious scholar defines the genesis of neo-Buddhism as diverse modernist and reformist movements within Buddhism aimed at adapting traditional forms of belief, worship, and organization to modernity."
It is also necessary to highlight the scientific materials edited by E.S. Elbakyan, S.I. Ivanenko, I.Ya. Kanterova, and M.N. Sitnikov in "New Religions in Russia: Twenty Years Later. Materials of the International Scientific-Practical Conference." The work is based on the conference "New Religions in Russia: Twenty Years Later," and examines various aspects of the phenomenon of new religious movements in Russia. Regarding pseudo-Eastern groups, the work pays special attention to the movement "Society for Krishna Consciousness." S.I. Ivanenko characterizes new Eastern religions in this work as "the most diverse Hindu and Buddhist movements, most of which arose within the religious systems of the East and then gained followers in Russia."
After analyzing the research works of domestic authors on the study of pseudo-Eastern religious groups, it can be concluded that in terms of methodology, the issue of pseudo-Eastern groups is most widely and substantively revealed by domestic Orthodox authors - primarily the works of A.L. Dvorkin and A.O. Khvily-Olinter. Among the secular-confessional approach, the works of V.Yu. Pitanov should be highlighted. If we talk about the works of secular authors, then it is necessary to highlight the works of E.G. Balagushkin and B.Z. Falikov. It should be noted that in the analyzed works of authors, there is some unity in the characterization of the beliefs of pseudo-Eastern groups - the attribution of traditionalism of Eastern Orthodox religions and an attempt to claim traditional values. By analyzing the works, a number of characteristics of pseudo-Eastern cults can be identified, namely: the destructive nature of groups, syncretic nature of beliefs, transformation of beliefs depending on the follower and their group, mimicry under traditional religion, and the expansion of beliefs of pseudo-Eastern religious groups in North America and Europe.
- Dvorkin A.L. International Society for Krishna Consciousness // Great Russian Encyclopedia: in 30 vols. / ed. by Yu. S. Osipov and others. - Moscow: Great Russian Encyclopedia, 2012. - Vol. 19 Manikovsky - Meotida. - P. 541. - 767 p.
- "Society for Krishna Consciousness" as a new age sect: (Using Christian images and concepts by its ideologists) // Proceedings of the annual theological conference of PSTBI. - Moscow, 1999. - P. 47-56
- A.L. Dvorkin. Sectology: Totalitarian sects: Experience of systematic research. - 3rd ed., revised and expanded. - Nizhny Novgorod: Christian Library, 2014 // [Electronic resource]. URL: https://litresp.ru/chitat/ru/%D0%94/dvorkin-aleksandr-leonidovich/sektovedenie/10(accessed on March 9, 2023).
- A.I. Khvyla-Olinther. Spiritual safety and spiritual health of a person, family, society // [Electronic resource]. URL: https://azbyka.ru/otechnik/novonachalnym/duhovnaja-bezopasnost-i-duhovnoe-zdorove-cheloveka-semi-obshhestva/3(accessed on March 10, 2023).
- Balagushkin E.G. Non-traditional religions in modern Russia: a morphological analysis. - Part 2. - Moscow, 2002. - p. 136.
- New religions in Russia: twenty years later. Materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference. Moscow, Central House of Journalists, December 14, 2012 - Moscow, 2013 - 240 p. // [Electronic resource] URL: https://roman142.blogspot.com/2014/09/2013.html?m=1(accessed on March 28, 2023).