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Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 17(229)

Рубрика журнала: Технические науки

Секция: Архитектура, Строительство

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Библиографическое описание:
Мамаш М.М., Кончина К.С., Юдина И.И. ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ ВТОРИЧНЫХ МАТЕРИАЛОВ В СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВЕ // Студенческий: электрон. научн. журн. 2023. № 17(229). URL: https://sibac.info/journal/student/229/287659 (дата обращения: 23.05.2024).

ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ ВТОРИЧНЫХ МАТЕРИАЛОВ В СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВЕ

Мамаш Марьяна Максимовна

студент, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Университет,

РФ, г. Москва

Кончина Карина Сергеевна

студент, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Университет,

РФ, г. Москва

Юдина Ирина Ивановна

преподаватель, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Университет,

РФ, г. Москва

USE OF RECYCLED MATERIALS IN CONSTRUCTION

 

Karina Konchina

student, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,

Russia, Moscow

Maryana Mamash

student, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,

Russia, Moscow

Irina Yudina

lecturer, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,

Russia, Moscow

 

АННОТАЦИЯ

Данная статья затрагивает вопрос использования переработанных материалов в сфере строительства. Целью исследования являлось изучение процесса утилизации строительных отходов, которые образуются при строительстве жилых зданий и сооружений, а также анализ возможных путей их вторичного использования.

ABSTRACT

This article deals with the use of recycled materials in the construction industry. The aim of the study was to study the process of recycling of building waste that is generated during the construction of residential buildings and structures, and to analyze possible ways of their secondary use.

 

Ключевые слова: материалы, строительство, переработка, вторичное сырье, отходы.

Keywords: materials, construction, recycling, secondary raw materials, waste.

 

Construction is one of the main areas of economic activity in our country and largely determines the solution of social, economic and technical problems of its development. None of the industries can improve without construction, creation of new and reconstruction of existing facilities.

The construction activities are the most important consumer of non-renewable resources, and consequently these activities have a negative impact on the environment.

Construction, which includes, as you know, not only construction works on building sites, but also the manufacturing processes of building materials and products, as well as the extraction of natural building materials and raw materials, is accompanied by critical impacts on the natural environment and environmental degradation.

During the construction phase, detrimental environmental impacts are:

-Atmospheric air pollution by gas-dust emissions (construction machinery and vehicles, welding and painting work, oil processing, mining and glass industries, etc.)

- Pollution of groundwater and wastewater (refueling of machinery and vehicles, mixtures of concrete and various solutions, etc.)

- Negative effects on the acoustic environment (construction engineering, piling works, etc.)

- Disturbance of the natural landscape on the ground.

- Pollution from production.

Waste from construction is highly damaging as it accounts for about one third of all waste across the country. Recycling construction materials can significantly reduce the negative impact of industry on the environment.

So what are recycled building materials?

As we know, secondary building raw materials include a variety of waste products of production and consumption, as well as their primary processing products intended for use in the production of building materials and in construction.

The best way to recycle construction waste is to use it in new, other projects, and there are many building materials that can be recycled. Recycling building materials offers the opportunity to save money. These savings include the cost of new materials as well as transportation and disposal costs. Recycled materials also save energy and reduce carbon emissions. The use of recycled materials, as well as household waste, can allow manufacture many products such as paper products, glass containers, a variety of metal and plastic products.

The following types of secondary raw materials can be distinguished:

- Waste paper (paper, cardboard, newspapers, textiles, TetraPak);

- Glass (glass, glass scrap);

- Scrap metal (black, coloured, precious);

- Chemicals (acids, alkalis, organics);

- Oil products (oil, bitumen, asphalt);

- Electronics (products, boards, batteries, mercury lamps, wires);

- Plastics (polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinyl chloride, high pressure polyethylene, ABS plastic, polystyrene, low pressure polyethylene);

- Rubber (tyres, rubber);

- Wood (branches, shavings, leaves);

- Building elements (brick, concrete, reinforcement) etc.

Let us list some examples of the use of recycled materials:

1) Reuse of waste paper and wood

Wood processing and sawmilling generate waste, which is used in the production of building materials, to them: bark, sawdust, branches, and lump waste. Building products based on this recycled material can be obtained by applying adhesives and binders, as well as without them. In particular, on the basis of this raw material, such materials as chipboard (particle board), DWA (fibre board) can be produced. Special additives are used in the production process that give these materials characteristics such as fire resistance and also increase their strength. Recycling paper helps to reduce the pollution in the environment. In the manufacturing of paper, very harmful substances are released into the environment, and when recycled paper is used, fewer chemical harmful substances are released. In addition, recycling paper waste saves some wood resources.

2) Reuse of glass waste

Glass waste is processed into technical glass, which is then used in construction. The glass recycling process includes the following steps:

- Separation of glass waste by recycling mark using separation equipment.

- Cleaning of glass debris with subsequent drying

- Shredding waste made of glass

- Prepare the glass and heat it with special equipment.

The recycling of production waste in the form of glass has significant advantages. For example, this process has a qualitative impact on landfill disposal, saving raw materials and energy resources for the manufacture of glass.

3) Reuse of polymer wastes

Processing of polymer recycled materials is advantageous for further use in the production of various concrete products and wood-polymer boards. Recycled polymers are only recycled if the purification and sorting is not essential for the production of polymer products.

Recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) used in the production of beverage bottles is provided with a insulating polyester fibre filler for jackets.

After recycling from recycled raw material, it is possible to produce carpets, containers, pallets, non-food trays, door panels, bars and bumpers for cars.

4) Reuse of waste rubber

Reuse of used tyres and rubber clears large areas of landfills from this type of waste, helps to avoid the release into the atmosphere of toxic substances that are produced during combustion, and eliminates the risk of spreading infection.

Rubber and car tyres are most often crushed into crumbs in specialized factories, and then used in many industries. New car tires and rubber shoes are made from recycled rubber. Recycled rubber is also widely used in the construction industry.

5) Reuse of metal and fuel waste

In the steel industry, the process of smelting different metals and burning of fuels forms a secondary raw material, which called slags. This raw material is often used in the cement industry. Adding the slag to the cement ensures high strength of the cement reduces its pressure on the ground and increases fire resistance. The use of this material in construction allows saving primary minerals.

Let us consider the information about the existing recycling plants for the production of new building materials in Russia and in Europe.

According to statistics in 2023, there are 15 waste processing plants in Russia. In the period from 2019 to 2021, sixty four sorting complexes were launched.

The work of the Russian recycling plant includes four main processes:

1. Waste sorting

  1. Processing of each category of raw materials: dry cleaning, washing, grinding, cracking, granulation
  2. Production of new products
  3. Destruction or disposal of wastes not suitable for processing

Currently Europe has more waste treatment plants than Russia. It is planned to build 30 new processing plants in 2024.

The European recycling plant includes the following processes:

  1. Acceptance and sorting of waste into product groups
  2. Extraction of harmful substances
  3. Processing of components (glass shredding, metal pressing)
  4. Highly toxic and toxic substances are stored in specially designated landfills

Europe, namely Germany, is noted as the world leader in the availability of recycling plants. Local management and sorting policies have paved the way for other countries to adopt sustainable waste management practices.

In conclusion, it should be noted that special attention should be paid to the choice of construction materials, special efforts should be made to reduce construction waste, to produce and use new building materials based on recycled materials.

 

References:

  1. Construction of buildings from recycled materials with respect to environmental standards (E.A. Sukhinina) [information resource] - 2021 URL:https:///cyberleninka.ru/article/n/stroitelstvozdaniy-izvtorichno-syryas-uchetombotreekovyviewki-viewer/
  2.  Emelianenko K. M. Ensuring ecological safety of construction/ K. M. Emelianenko. - Text: direct// Young Scientist. - 5 (191). — С.20-22. [information resource] - 2018 URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/191/48178/ (date of reference: 28.01.2023).
  3. Processing of building materials (Anuj Srivastava) [information resource] - 2019 URL: https://ww.ny-engineer(s. com/blog/recycling-construction-materials
  4. Scientific journal on the theme: Earth Sciences and Related Environmental Sciences, Biological Sciences, Construction and Architecture [information resource] - 2020 URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/journal/n/ekologiya-i-stroitelstvo?i=1068914
  5. The role of construction in the economy [information resource] – 2023 URL: https://imbuilder.ru/rol-stroitelstva-v-ekonomike/

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