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Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 10(222)

Рубрика журнала: Экономика

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Библиографическое описание:
Voronina O. HEALTH CARE AS A SECTOR OF THE NATIONAL ECONOMY // Студенческий: электрон. научн. журн. 2023. № 10(222). URL: https://sibac.info/journal/student/222/282695 (дата обращения: 22.09.2023).


Voronina Olga

master’s student, Belgorod State National Research University,

Russia, Belgorod


This article discusses the essence of health care as a branch of the national economy, characterizes the tasks and goals of this industry. The article also examines the current situation in the field of healthcare in Russia, analyzes the national project "Health", which is designed to improve the demographic indicators in the country and, as a result, improve the national economy of the state.


Keywords: national economy, sectors, healthcare, population, healthcare economy, national project.


Health care is the most priority direction of the national policy of the state, which is aimed at ensuring the rights of citizens to life and health. The deterioration in the health status of the population is associated with an increase in the cost of medical care and the determination of indicators of the able-bodied population in connection with injuries and premature death, a decrease in the cost of drug treatment, an increase in the production of social illness and social insurance. The socio-economic and mass transformations taking place in the country have a huge impact on public health and the spread of this infection.

A modern person is constantly in an environment that is an environment with a high probability of various injuries, illnesses, as well as stress. No matter what type of disease or ailment it is, a person will always turn to the healthcare system.

In recent years, there has been a steady trend towards an increase in the complexity and number of different applications to various institutions. In this regard, a well-thought-out strategy for healthcare reform is needed.

It should also be noted that the level of public health is characterized by a number of indicators. This is, first of all, the level of morbidity of the population, the demographic situation, the state of sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population, the activities and condition of the network of medical institutions that provide medical care.

Using the data of medical, demographic and economic indicators, it is possible to identify certain problems of the Russian healthcare system:

1) political - preparation of the legislative framework; lobbying the interests of healthcare in government bodies, etc.;

2) medical - high mortality, the growth of infectious diseases, the health of schoolchildren, the incidence of newborns, etc.;

3) financial and economic - insufficiency of state funding, inefficient use of funds from VMI, compulsory medical insurance and other sources of funding;

4) organizational and managerial - problems of restoring a rational vertical of management of the healthcare system; separation of powers of the Federal Center and the Subjects of the Federation; emphasis in the provision of medical care on the outpatient link, and not the hospital and others.

Thus, these problems show that the health of the population is the main criterion for the quality of the population, which is also associated with assessments of the level of culture and education, vocational training, labor productivity, etc. The economy and public health are closely linked. All these problems are studied by health economics - a branch of economic science that studies the effect of economic laws under certain conditions of production and consumption of medical services, as well as factors and conditions that ensure the most complete satisfaction of public needs in protecting public health and medical care at a certain level of resources.

The health care economy sets as its main goal - to achieve, at economically justified material and financial costs, the maximum effect in achieving the goal set by society for health care, namely, reducing the loss of potential and active life of the population.

The more specific goals are:

• achieving maximum medical, social, and economic efficiency in protecting public health at the lowest material and financial costs;

• rational use of health resources and reserves;

• maximum satisfaction of the population's need for medical care at economically justified material and financial costs.

Subjects of study:

• objective laws of the development of a complex of economic relations developing in the industry in the process of protecting the health of the people;

• conditions and factors that ensure maximum satisfaction of the population's needs for medical care and public health protection with minimal costs of living and social labor.

In fact, healthcare economics studies the essence and nature of economic problems in healthcare. There are problems of "general" – intersectoral – and "specific" – intra-industry economy. Otherwise, we can talk about the problems that are solved by macro- and microeconomics.

It goes without saying that this division is very conditional, since the problems of the "general economy" are formed and depend on specific economic problems solved in the health care system or its specific part (organizational or functional system or subsystem).

The general economic problems of healthcare are related to the role that healthcare plays in the unified system of national economic production – reproduction of the social product and labor force, improvement of the nature of public relations.

In other words, the general economics of healthcare studies the contribution of the entire healthcare system to the development of the national economy, i.e. direct and feedback links that exist between healthcare as a specific branch of the national economy and the national economy as a whole.

Today, healthcare is rightly understood as a participant in economic exchange, which is an important link in the unified general economic complex system of the country. Planning and management of the healthcare economy is gradually beginning to be implemented from the position of balancing supply and demand for healthcare services with reimbursement of the costs of this area for expanded reproduction.

The economic model of healthcare includes connections and elements characteristic of any economic system: 1. Organizational forms of economic activity. 2. The economic mechanism. 3. Economic relations. 4. Socio-economic relations.

The society creates a demand for medical services, which represent a purposeful and direct interaction of the consumer (patient) with medical personnel, the result of which is an intangible product that satisfies human needs for diagnostic, advisory, therapeutic and preventive care or relief of his psychophysiological condition. This product has an independent finished value and a specific cost.

Ultimately, the healthcare system in society, while preserving human health, contributes to the formation of its labor potential, as well as the reproduction of labor resources. In turn, labor resources are the most important element of the productive forces of society. Thus, the most important economic function of health care in society is its participation in the reproduction of labor resources.

The National Healthcare Project is a long-term program for the development of the medical industry, covering the period from 2019 to 2024. The national project combined 8 programs related to each other. The project budget is 1,725.9 billion rubles.

The key objectives of the national project include reducing infant mortality, mortality of the working-age population, mortality from cancer and cardiovascular diseases, reducing hospital mortality from stroke and heart attack, increasing the number of X-ray endovascular operations, achieving almost full staffing of outpatient care units by doctors and nurses, the introduction of "lean technologies" in medical institutions, ensuring coverage of citizens with preventive medical examinations at least once a year, increasing the volume of exported medical services.

Medical care will become more accessible to Russians, there will be a transformation in the nature of the relationship between doctors and patients, and the quality of medical care will improve. Annual preventive examinations and medical examinations will prevent many serious diseases and their complications. Coverage of primary prevention is planned to increase to 70%. The introduction of modern clinical guidelines and the modernization of treatment protocols will help to increase the availability of high-quality medical care in the regions. Training and advanced training of physicians in the system of continuing medical education will provide the industry with qualified personnel. As a result of the implementation of all these measures, it will be possible to significantly increase the average life expectancy of Russians to at least 78 years by 2024.

What will be done and when:

- During the year, as part of the development of children's healthcare, at least 8 thousand specialists in the field of perinatology, neonatology and pediatrics will be trained in simulation centers.

- By the end of the year, 83% of the medical rates and 91% of the rates of the average medical staff in the primary level will be staffed with qualified specialists.

In 2020, 18 reference centers for immunohistochemical, pathomorphological and radiation research methods for oncological diseases should also be created.

-By the end of 2020, the Ministry of Health of Russia will develop at least 4 thousand educational modules, taking into account updated clinical recommendations.

-At least 560 thousand medical workers of various specialties will regularly improve their qualifications in the system of continuing medical education.

Thus, the health of the population is the main element of the social, economic and cultural development of the state. In the Russian Federation, goals and measures for the development of the healthcare system are being defined, among which the key ones are increasing the availability of high-tech medical care for the population, strengthening the link of primary health care, as well as expanding and intensifying preventive activities.

At the moment, the situation in healthcare in Russia is rather uncertain. However, it is possible to improve demographic indicators in our country only with an improvement in the socio-economic situation of citizens, an increase in state funding for healthcare and the implementation of targeted health protection programs. This will make it possible to achieve a noticeable increase in the life expectancy of the population.

In order to solve the existing problems in the field of healthcare in our country, it is necessary to pay special attention to financing and targeted distribution of allocated funds. In Russia, there is a tendency to reduce government spending on social needs, which negatively affects the lives of the population of our country. If this process is not stopped in the near future, then in the very near future we can expect a rapid decline in the population of Russia, a deterioration in the health of the nation, which, in turn, will lead to a weakening of the national security of our country.



  1. Ilyasova A.R. Fundamentals of health economics: a textbook / A.R. Ilyasova.– Kazan: Kazan Publishing House. un-ta, 2019. – 86 p.
  2. The official website of the Future of Russia URL: https://futurerussia.gov.ru/

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