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Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 38(208)

Рубрика журнала: Технические науки

Секция: Архитектура, Строительство

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Библиографическое описание:
Abramychev G., Pashnin I. CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS BY LIFT SLAB METHOD // Студенческий: электрон. научн. журн. 2022. № 38(208). URL: https://sibac.info/journal/student/209/270265 (дата обращения: 03.12.2022).

CONSTRUCTION OF BUILDINGS BY LIFT SLAB METHOD

Abramychev Grigory

student, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,

Russia, Moscow

Pashnin Ivan

student, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,

Russia, Moscow

Yudina Irina Ivanovna

научный руководитель,

scientific adviser, lecturer, National Research Moscow State University of Civil Engineering,

Russia, Moscow

СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВО ЗДАНИЙ МЕТОДОМ ПОДЪЕМА ЭЛЕМЕНТОВ

 

Пашнин Иван Андреевич

студент, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Университет,

РФ, г. Москва

Абрамычев Григорий Владиславович

студент, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Университет,

РФ, г. Москва

Юдина Ирина Ивановна

Научный руководитель, преподаватель, Национальный Исследовательский Московский Государственный Строительный Университет,

РФ, г. Москва

 

ABSTRACT

This article deals with the issue of construction using the lift slab method, describes the history of its appearance and its uniqueness, identifies the advantages and disadvantages of this technology, provides examples of its practical application in construction.

АННОТАЦИЯ

В данной статье рассматривается вопрос строительства с использованием метода подъема элементов, описывается история появления метода подъема элементов и его уникальность, определяются преимущества и недостатки данной технологии, приводятся примеры его практического применения в строительстве.

 

Keywords: lift slab method, advantages and disadvantages, unique construction method, examples of practical application.

Ключевые слова: метод подъема элементов, преимущества и недостатки, уникальный метод строительства, примеры практического применения.

 

Throughout its history, humanity has gone a long way, from simple huts and dugouts to high-tech high-rise buildings. People have come up with many innovative ways of building construction. And one of them was a way of building construction from top to bottom, which is called lift slab method. This method is one of the promising areas of industrial construction, which allows you to combine the positive qualities of prefabricated and monolithic reinforced concrete.

The lift slab method is an innovative construction method that was invented in the 1940s. Lifting elements can be both fully manufactured floors and horizontal floor slabs. Therefore there are two variations of this method. In the first variation, fully manufactured floors are lifted, in the second variation, only horizontal floor slabs are lifted.

For the first time, the idea of ​​building multi-story buildings by the lift slab method was expressed by the French engineer Lafargue. This idea was brought to life by New York architect Philip N. Youtz and Texas businessman Tom Slick. They used the lift slab method to build Trinity University in San Antonio, Texas in 1952 in the USA, the first building which was constructed using this method. Soon, after such a construction experiment, the lift slab method became widespread and began to be used in many European countries. For example, this method was used in the construction of the Columbus Towers in Madrid, Spain and also in Japan. In the USSR, it was first used in 1959 during the construction of a house in Leningrad in Magnitogorskaya Street. Subsequently, the lift slab method began to be used in the construction of a building in Moscow, for example, in the construction of the Central State Archive of the city. This method was also widely used in Armenia - a specialized design bureau and a separate construction and assembly trust (an association of several enterprises of the same type) were created in order to use the new construction method.

Now the lift slab method is being used to solve unique urban problems – construction of buildings in historical centers, on complex terrain or in narrow spaces, that is, in places where classical methods cannot be applied.

This method is such a construction of buildings, in which a roof is made at the level of the first floor and then it is lifted to the design level. Floors or floor slabs are also mounted at zero level and lifted to the desired height, and then they are attached to each other. If the height of the house is less than five floors, then the columns can be the supporting base. For multi-storey buildings, a monolithic stiffening core is required - a supporting base made of reinforced concrete or metal. Cables and lifting mechanisms are attached to the carrier core. A crane is also installed on it. Finishing work, in the case of lifting the entire floors, is carried out at the zero level. If the lifting of the floor slabs is used, then the finishing work is carried out at the height indicated in the project.

This method has both advantages and disadvantages. Let's list the advantages:

  1. Efficiency of space use, namely:
  • The ability to build buildings of any shape allows the formation of precise and extended structures that meet the needs of the city
  • Architectural and planning solutions allow placing up to 300 square meters of living space per floor (per story landing) per one core of rigidity
  • Possibility of organizing functional zones in the building and their convenient interconnection. Floor slabs with cantilever outlets allow you to organize summer rooms, balconies and loggias
  • The ability to create a variety of planning solutions within one floor, since there are no load-bearing walls, with the exception of the core of rigidity. This allows both to divide the premises into the maximum number of apartments of the minimum allowable area, and vice versa, to make the whole floor without floor slab, which is important for administrative buildings or office centers
  • The possibility of completely different floor heights within the same building. This makes it possible to combine floors in a residential building allocated for cultural, domestic, commercial and other premises, creating prerequisites for the design of residential complexes. The potentially wide shaping possibilities of the lift slab method make it the most preferable in certain urban planning situations. Thus, in buildings erected by this method, the versatility of the use of their internal space is ensured
  1. Labor costs, savings, ease of construction:
  • The lift slab method allows the construction of buildings of any shape and, if necessary, with different floor heights using a single technology, the existing fixed assets of a construction organization and the existing lifting equipment
  • The lift slab method made it possible to provide a solution to various architectural and urban planning problems in the construction of buildings in cramped areas of the city, on difficult terrain, in various and difficult climatic conditions
  • A feasibility study shows that when erecting buildings by lifting floors (or elements), the cost, consumption of basic building materials, labor costs and construction time are more than 20 percent lower than the same indicators of buildings constructed by any other method. Savings when using the lift slab method is achieved due to the maximum lightening of building structures, due to the use of highly efficient lifting equipment and some other factors, resulting in a decrease in the physical volume of structures and types of work performed
  • Carrying out most of the work on the ground, followed by lifting the floors to the proper levels, improves working conditions and increases the safety of building construction process
  • Reducing the time of work due to the combination of related construction and installation processes, which is feasible due to the features of this method used in the building construction
  • The most efficient use of equipment for the construction of buildings due to its use only during the period of lifting and installation work
  • Eliminating formwork and performing reinforcing and concrete work in a larger scale, using the advantages of floor slabs manufacturing on the ground.
  • Restriction of the construction site by the size of the object in the plan
  1. Reliability
  • The location of the stiffness core in the center of the building and the symmetry in the building plan, as well as the use of uncut slabs, which is characteristic of the method, make it possible to combine the center of mass and the center of stiffness, thereby increasing the seismic resistance of the building and providing a better perception of significant loads acting on the frame

Let us list the disadvantages of this method, they are the following:

  • Sophisticated technology
  • Lifting, installation and lowering of lifting mechanisms is carried out using a helicopter
  • The need for a team of highly qualified builders who know the method of lifting elements
  • On the floor slabs, the installation of walls takes place in narrow spaces
  • The speed of construction is highly dependent on the quality of the equipment, which does not make the lift slab method very common - it is cheaper to build with the classical method using the cheaper equipment
  • The entrance to the building is often located in the core of rigidity, which means that there is a need for light openings on the roof, which still do not provide sufficient illumination both inside and outside the building. Therefore, there is a need for round-the clock entrance lighting.

Let us consider all the advantages and disadvantages of the lift slab method on a practical example of a four-story residential building in Leningrad built in Magnitogorskaya Street in 1959.

One of the main advantages of this method was the small number of people involved in the construction process. In the construction of this residential building, one assembly team of five people was employed. Basically, they were engaged in the assembly of already manufactured floors at ground level, which implied that the builders would perform the work in safer conditions. Another advantage was the optional use of a crane, especially if the building, as in this example, was a low-rise building.

On the other hand, despite the small size of the assembly team, the specialists of that team must be highly qualified and they have to know this particular construction method well. The lift slab method requires the use of expensive equipment, including helicopters to remove lifting mechanisms from the roof. The slow construction speed is also its big drawback. During the construction of a house in Leningrad, it was stated that the floor lifting speed was one meter per hour. But it is known that roof lifting took 8 days. It was a four-story building; it had no more than 10 meters height. The speed of floor lifting was from 10 to 15 centimeters per hour. It took 44 days to lift the roof and four floors (five sections), that means the average lifting speed was from 2 to 3 centimeters per day. From all of the above, we have come to the conclusion that a building constructed using the lift slab method takes longer to build than a similar building constructed using the conventional method.

In conclusion, we would like to say that this method of building construction has more disadvantages than advantages. However, the lift slab method at this stage is a unique technique designed to solve unique construction problems, such as the construction of buildings on a minimum area, the construction of buildings in seismically active areas and in other adverse conditions, in which classical methods cannot be applied.

 

References:

  1. Banykin B.N. Design and construction of large-panel houses. - Moscow: 1963. - 179 pages.
  2. Houses built from top to bottom. // YouTube URL: [Electronic resource] https://youtu.be/PzRyUmvqM-w
  3. Unusual building in the USA, which belongs to Russia // Billionnews URL: [Electronic resource] https://billionnews.ru/7163-neobychnoe-zdanie-v-ssha-kotoroe-prinadlezhit-rossii.html
  4. Potapova Yu.I. The method of lifting ceilings - urban planning emphasis on economy class housing // Successes of modern natural science. - 2011. - No. 7. - P. 18-21; URL: [Electronic resource] https://natural-sciences.ru/ru/article/view?id=26973
  5. How long should a house be built? // n-s-k.net URL: [Electronic resource]https://www.n-s-k.net/fix/article/213

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