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Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 8(178)

Рубрика журнала: Социология

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Библиографическое описание:
Kudryavykh T. VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE FOR SCHOOLCHILDREN AS A TYPE OF SOCIAL PROBLEM // Студенческий: электрон. научн. журн. 2022. № 8(178). URL: https://sibac.info/journal/student/178/243064 (дата обращения: 02.07.2022).


Kudryavykh Tatiana

Student, Department of Sociology and Organization of Work with Youth, Belgorod State University,

Russia, Belgorod

Bogachev Roman

научный руководитель,

scientific adviser, professor, senior lecturer, Belgorod State University,

Russia, Belgorod


An important problem for students in school is the choice of profession. The interests of a large proportion of students are extremely unstable.

It is emphasized that the right choice of profession and career guidance is important not only from the perspective of determining a person's life plans, but also from the perspective of the development of society as a whole.

Professional self-determination is a person's definition of himself/herself in relation to the criteria of professionalism chosen by society (and accepted by that society).

As an example, the majority of graduates do not have a clear current perspective, more than 37% of them enter training and work in professions that are not suitable for their personal needs. Young people really have no information about many new professions. Some high school graduates enroll in university solely to simply acquire a college degree.


Keywords: vocational guidance, professional self-determination, profession, labor, training, socialization.


The history of the development of the state's needs in training these or those specialists shows that starting from the 1930s up to the end of the 1980s the value of engineering education was actively asserted, because new industrial enterprises, design bureaus and industry institutes were put into operation every year in the country. In the 90's, at the initial stage of formation of market economy, the importance of legal and economic education increased as a result of a sharp curtailment of domestic industry. In public opinion, which was already formed without the participation of the state, a stereotype was established that the most "profitable" in terms of material security were the professions of manager, lawyer, and economist.

The range of social roles and interests expands in adolescence. At this age there are many significant social events: obtaining a passport, the onset of criminal liability, the possibility of exercising active suffrage, the opportunity to marry. Everyone faces the task of choosing a profession and a future path in life. The social situation of development is that society puts the task of professional self-determination before the youth in terms of real choice. Professional self-determination becomes the psychological center of the social situation of development.

 A high school student finds himself or herself in the situation of choosing how to continue education in one of its specific forms: - the first time in 9th grade in connection with choosing the form of completion of secondary education; - the second time in 11th grade of high school, when the paths to higher education or direct inclusion in working life are planned. As the center of social situation of development, professional self-determination forms a kind of internal position of a high school student, which is associated with a change in attitude towards the future.

Professional self-determination cannot be considered as a "stop frame" of the development process: the experience acquired in the chosen path changes the picture of a person's possibilities and the direction of his/her further development. Self-determination is a two-way phenomenon: on the one hand, the one who chooses (the subject of choice), on the other hand, what is chosen (the profession as the object of choice). Both the subject and the object have a large number of characteristics, which explains the ambiguity of the phenomenon of career choice. Self-determination is an important event in a person's life path. It is connected not only with the past experience of an individual, but also extends far into the future, participating in the formation of the image of "I", predetermining many aspects of life. The most studied and recognized factors of self-determination are the subject's interests and abilities. Self-determination reflects a certain level of personal aspirations based on the assessment of one's abilities and capabilities.



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