Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 14(142)
Рубрика журнала: Экономика
THE ROLE OF MONEY AND THE PECULIARITIES OF ITS MANIFESTATION IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN THE STATE AND ECONOMIC ENTITIES
Article defines the role of money Development State economy. Money features revealed; Type of circulation of money; factors This characterizes the role of money in the economy, Monetary relations between state and state Economic units.
Keywords: money, functions of money, circulation of money, amount of money, factors, value of money in economy.
Money is an objective necessity for the development of economic relations between the state and business entities.
Money belongs to the economic category. They affect the economy according to the rules that banks follow when it comes to making money. The means of payment can be exchanged for goods and services, used to pay off debts.
The role of money is determined by its essence as a universal equivalent, since the attribution of goods of a special type to this role is the law of any production of goods. It is important that money appears as a result of economic relations in the economic life of people. Therefore, the monetary aspect is quite objective.
The essence of money can be viewed from two sides: material as an expression of value and intangible as a requirement to change the form in accordance with the level of trade relations for the effective functioning of the economy. According to the criterion of "the essence of money", monetary economic theories can be divided into three areas.
Proponents of the first approach believe that money has a state legal basis, is a symbol, a representative of values, and by itself has no real meaning; money arises as a result of an agreement between people or a legislative decision of the state, that is, they are created, they are invented as a special tool for the movement of values in the exchange of changes; the currency has a state seal and a compulsory exchange rate [2, с. 4, 12].
The second establishes the evolutionary essence of the monetary commodity, believes that money is something that has a certain value; a commodity that, like all commodities, obeys the law of supply and demand; money comes naturally from economic exchange.
There is also a "functional" concept, according to which the essence of money is in its functions. The functional theory of money considers the purchasing power of money as a result of its circulation or action. Now it is officially recognized in the modern paradigm of the origin of money in the scientific world. Austrian economist Karl Menger argued that money arises from the fact that “people give up their goods in exchange for others who have higher trading opportunities, even if they do not need them for immediate consumption [4, с. 39].
The functions of money as an economic category are not fulfilled once and for all. They depend on the degree of development of relations between goods and money, on the technical means of exchange operations and on specific socio-economic conditions. At the initial stage of development, money performed two functions: a means of comparing the value of goods and a medium of circulation.
In the nineteenth century. Under the conditions of general relations between goods and money, in the general sphere of private property and when using money in gold, its functions were a measure of value, a means of circulation, a means of payment, a means of accumulation world money. According to Marx [3, с. 51], money performs five functions: measures of value, means of circulation, means of accumulation, means of payment and world money. Money plays the same role by the gold standard. The gold standard is understood as a monetary system in which gold plays the role of a general equivalent. Gold coins are used in circulation, as are banknotes that can be exchanged for gold.
Modern Western scholars unanimously recognize three functions: a medium of exchange, a measure of value, and a store of value (a store of value). Recently, researchers [7, с.6-7] also talk about the activation of the information exchange component, which not only carries information about the cost of goods and services, but is also a condition for planning, forecasting and evaluating the development of the national, sectoral economy. ... markets, businesses and households. The informational function of money does not duplicate the function of a measure of value, but it is broader and more consistent with the essence of modern money. Currently, there are a number of functions that money performs [1, с. 245-249].
Money is a measure of value: it measures the value of all commodities. The value of money is its price. Commodity prices. they are expressed in a certain amount of a monetary commodity, gold. The amount of gold (its mass) is measured by its weight. The unit of measurement of its mass is a certain amount of the weight of gold. This unit, established by the state as a monetary unit, is called a price scale. All prices for goods are expressed in a certain amount of currency units or in a certain number of weight units of gold.
So in the United States the price scale until 1971 was the dollar was equal to 0.818513 grams of pure gold. In Russia, the ruble became a monetary unit, so the equivalent amount of gold in 1897 was determined at 0.774254 grams. Money is a means of payment. This function of money is manifested primarily in the service of payments outside the sphere of commodity circulation. These are taxes, social benefits, interest on loans.
Money is easily accepted as a means of payment. Money also performs this function in the provision and return of cash loans, in the payment of wage arrears. Cash also serves as a means of payment, but most of the circulation of money, where money acts as a means of payment, falls on non-cash payments between legal entities.
Money serves as a means of circulation and ensuring the circulation of goods. First, money today is a medium of circulation; this money can be used to buy and sell goods and services. This is expressed by the formula: T (commodity) - D (money) - T (commodity). As a medium of exchange, money allows society to avoid the disadvantages of barter.
Money, as a convenient way of exchanging goods, allows society to take advantage of geographic specialization and the division of labor among people.
Money is a way to collect, save, teach treasures. Since money is a liquid asset, it is the most convenient form of asset preservation. Keeping money, with some exceptions, does not bring profit, cash income from holding assets in the form of, for example, real estate (assets) or securities (stocks, bonds).
However, money has the advantage that a business or household can immediately use it to meet financial obligations. The beginning of the movement of money is preceded by their concentration on objects. They are concentrated in the wallets of the population, cash registers of legal entities, on accounts with credit institutions, and the state treasury. The emergence of the movement of money requires from the other side the need for money. The demand for money arises when performing activities, in the money needed for treatment, when paying for goods and services. Their size is determined based on nominal GDP. The higher the monetary value of goods and services, the more money is required to carry out transactions.
The demand for money is reflected in accumulation, which takes various forms: deposits in credit institutions, securities, government official reserves.
Currency exchange takes two forms: cash and non-cash. Cash - the movement of cash and the performance of two functions (means of payment and transactions). In other words, money circulation is the movement of money in the performance of its duties in cash and non-cash form, which serves the sale of goods and non-commodity settlement and clearing. In this case, the way of organizing money in the country, historically formed and enshrined in national legislation, is called the monetary system [8, с. 72].
Cash is used for: (a) circulation of goods and services; (b) calculations that are not directly related to the movement of goods and services, namely: calculations of wages, bonuses, benefits, pensions; payment of insurance claims under insurance contracts; when paying and paying income on securities; payments by the public for services of general interest, etc. For example, cash (banknotes, coins), deposits (bank payment cards (credit, debit), checks and bank transfers, as well as electronic money, which are close to the money of individuals). is used today as a means of payment [8, с. 72] between individuals and legal entities, between individuals, between legal entities, between individuals and government agencies, between legal entities and government agencies.
Currency exchange is carried out using different types of currency: bank, coins, other creditors (bills of exchange, debit cards, checks, credit cards). The money is provided by the central bank (usually the state). Cash is released and debited when it becomes unusable and the money is replaced with new banknote and coin designs. Cashless transactions: crediting funds to fundraising accounts, clearing individual data. The development of the credit system and the emergence of patients' money in bank accounts and other financial institutions led to the emergence of such treatments.
Cash is accepted by check, exchange fees, credit card and other credit instruments. Cash receipts include the following payments: a) companies, corporations, various entities that have their own accounts with corporate debt; b) regulators and financial institutions for the purpose of obtaining and repaying debt; c) regulatory authorities and the public on the payment of wages, income from security; (d) ordinary and legal persons holding and investing funds to pay taxes, duties and other fees, as well as to receive shares, etc.
The amount of non-income depends on the number of goods in the country, the price tag and the volume of distribution and redistribution by fiscal position. Cash less ness explains its contribution to the economy by increasing the exchange rate of the labor force, reducing income and reducing the distribution of costs.
From an economic point of view, there are two categories of non-cash transactions: commodity transactions and financial transactions. The first part covers cash payments for goods and services, the second - balance payments (income tax, VAT and other applicable fees) and expenses, repayment of bank debts, interest payments on loans, contracts and insurance. There is a correlation and interdependence between cash and non-cash: money constantly moves from one activity to another, money is exchanged for investments and corporate debt, and vice versa. Cash appears when cash is deposited into credit card accounts, which means that cash cannot be booked without cash. At the same time, the buyer receives the money when it is debited from the lender's account.
Thus, cash and other cash flows make up the total income of a country and one currency. Trade in goods and money requires a certain amount of money to be distributed. The Anti-Money Laundering Act, discovered by Karl Marx, establishes the amount of money required to carry out work as a medium of exchange and payment. Karl Marx describes this amount: “In the iron system, the amount of money was regulated by the action of wealth, that is, money increased and decreased, freely adapting to the needs of the product. demand. This ensured the stability of the budget” [6, с. 7].
Indeed, in an economy, payments are made for goods and services. over a certain period of time, it must be equal to all the money received by buyers of these goods and services during the same period. This practical study was developed by the American economist Fisher to compare exchange rates.
In the economic market, the role of money increases significantly. Not because manufacturers gain independence by stabilizing the quantity and quantity of products produced and sold, but also because the amount of money held by the authorized owner is an estimate of the moment of demand, taking into account the size and quantity, and the reference to the sale of embedded products, food, fabrics works as a means of measuring statics and financial strength. At the same time, there is an exponential view based on the expectation of the amount of money (their value, significant information) on the general economic situation. Understanding the working methods for determining the relationship between markets, regulating economic and financial movements allows market participants to contribute to the positive development of the entire economic state.
- Artem'eva S.S., Mitrohin V.V., Chugunov V.I. i dr. Podrobnee o funkcijah deneg // Finansy, denezhnoe obrashhenie, kredit: Uchebnik dlja vuzov. M., 2008. S. 245–249.
- Ljukevich I.N. Teorija i metodologija issledovanija deneg i denezhnyh sistem // Nauchnyj zhurnal NIU ITMO. Serija "Jekonomika i jekologicheskij menedzhment". 2013. № 2. S. 4, 12.
- Marks K.K kritike politicheskoj jekonomii. M., 1984. S. 51.
- Menger Karl. Izbrannye raboty. M., 2006.
- Romanovskogo M.V., Vrublevskoj O.V. Finansy, denezhnoe obrashhenie i kredit: uchebnik dlja vuzov. M., 2010.
- Tuhvatulina L.A.. Den'gi, kredit, banki. M., 2010. Научный журнал КубГАУ, №101(07), 2014 года http://ej.kubagro.ru/2014/07/pdf/104.pdf 17.
- Usatkina O. I. Vlijanie transformacii prirody i funkcij sovremennyh deneg na denezhno-kreditnuju politiku: Avtoref. diss.... kand. jekon. nauk: 08.00.01, 08.00.10. Rostovna-Donu, 2006. S. 6–7.
- Frolova E. E. Denezhnoe obrashhenie kak ob#ekt gosudarstvennogo regulirovanija // Probely v rossijskom zakonodatel'stve. 2010. № 4. S. 313–314. Puti razvitija nalichnodenezhnogo obrashhenija. Obzor pjatoj mezhdunarodnoj konferencii po nalichnomu obrashheniju // Den'gi i kredit. 2012. № 7 S. 72.
- Fisher I. Pokupatel'naja sila deneg. Izd-vo «Delo». M., 2001. S. 32, 33.
- Borkova E., Mutareva E., Vatlina L., Rodionova T., Trunin V. Analysis of The Relationship of Average Consumption Spending Per Capita And Economic Indicators of The Region by The Method of Mathematical Regulation // 35th IBIMA Conference: 1-2 April 2020, Seville, Spain. Р.
- Digitalization of the economy on the example of the banking system Borkova E. A., Osipova K. A., Svetlovidova E. V., Frolova E. V. Creative economy. 2019. Vol. 13. No. 6. pp. 1153-1162.