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Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 13(141)

Рубрика журнала: Социология

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Библиографическое описание:
Kuznetsova K. YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AS A MODERN PROBLEM // Студенческий: электрон. научн. журн. 2021. № 13(141). URL: https://sibac.info/journal/student/141/207234 (дата обращения: 01.03.2024).

YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AS A MODERN PROBLEM

Kuznetsova Ksenia

student, Departament of Sociology and Organization of work with Youth, Belgorod State University,

Russia, Belgorod

ABSTRACT

This article considers the socio-economic phenomenon - youth unemployment. The work indicates the causes of unemployment of young people, threats, statistics. The purpose of the article is the theoretical validity of the topic. It is relevant in the modern world, because youth unemployment leads to economic and demographic problems, and this affects the standard of living of the population.

 

Keywords: unemployment, youth, employment, labor market, unemployment rate, employment agencies.

 

Currently, unemployment is one of the significant problems for modern society. Many categories of the population experience difficulties in finding employment. This also applies to young people. An analysis of the labor market shows that the situation related to the employment of young people is becoming tense. Young people find it difficult to find work in the current economic conditions.

Youth unemployment is a socio-economic phenomenon in which an economically active part of the population aged 16 to 29 years inclusive does not find work and becomes an "excess population" [1, P. 59-60]. According to statistics from the Federal State Statistics Service, in Russia for 2018, 22% of the able-bodied population, including youth, are not employed [2].

Unemployment among young people is expressed by various factors:

1. Lack of job security in the specialty, which is related to the choice of required professions in the labor market;

2. Distrust on the part of the employer, since many prefer more qualified and experienced candidates;

3. Low motivation to work;

4. High wage demands;

5. Low competitiveness;

6. The spread of alcoholism, smoking and drug addiction.

The problem of unemployment is comprehensive. It covers all spheres of life. Firstly, this applies to the economy of the country as a whole. Young people make up a significant part of the population and it is her work that provides support for other categories. Secondly, this is a psychological orientation. Scientists have found out that an unemployed person most often suffers from depression, he manifests psychosomatic disorders, he doubts his independence. Thirdly, this is a social character. Lack of work can contribute to delicate and criminal behavior. This is very dangerous for young people aged 15 to 19 years, because criminalization and marginalization at this age occurs much faster. The young man is spared the need for work ethics and gets used to life outside of work [1, P. 62-63].  Fourth, unemployment affects human development. It is a factor of socialization, which speaks of the demand of youth in the labor market and describes the general economic situation in society.

In relation to work, one can judge the economic behavior of young people. Economic behavior is a system of action through which a young person interacts with other people in the process of production, exchange and distribution. Main types of economic behavior [1, P. 55-56]:

1. Pragmatical– work is a source of material well-being. The person who chooses this type of behavior is adjusted to receive wages, regardless of the content of the work;

2. Professional– the value of labor in its content, that is, the carriers of such behavior are determined to work in a certain profession;

3. Indifferent (conformist) – work is of no value, people who choose this type of behavior prefer not to work at all and easily change their profession.

The latter type of economic behaviour is a danger. The young man does not see the motivation for choosing a profession, its value, does not have a clear idea of ​ ​ it. His area of ​ ​ interest is far from work. And perhaps this is the fault of educational institutions that did not instill this feeling, did not reveal the full potential of the young specialist.  After all, it is precisely, in student years, a person's worldview and circle of his interests are formed.

Universities and colleges play an important role in choosing a profession, as well as in further work. Organizing the practice is one way to overcome youth unemployment. A student undergoing practice can notice the director of the enterprise and invite him to stay, thereby officially accepting him to work. Also, educational institutions themselves create new jobs, inviting graduates to remain in the walls of the university in certain positions.

The cause of youth unemployment is also informal employment, which has recently been gaining momentum. This is employment, which does not require the formalization of relations between the employer and the worker. This is a kind of part-time work in time free from study or official work, which is a quick way to increase your current income. For people aged 23 to 30 years, part-time work is not of particular importance, since it is not the main source of income. But for young people aged 18 to 21, this is a great way to meet their needs. As part-time work, young people most often go to construction and are engaged in hard physical work. And this directly affects the health and general condition of a person.

Threats to informal employment [3]:

1. Risks associated with unfair dismissal from employment;

2. Stagnation in one place;

3. Lack of career development;

4. Work not in the specialty;

5. Instability of earnings.

Reasons for informal youth employment (see table) [4].

Table 1.

Reasons for informal youth employment

Reasons:

Number of respondents:

1. Reluctance of the employer to formalize.

17.1%

2. Unwillingness of the worker to formalize.

21.4%

3. There were no other employment opportunities.

25.4%

4. Mutual desire not to draw up an official contract.

32.9%

5. another

3.2%

 

Informal employment thus has both positive and negative aspects. But still, most researchers attribute it to a negative form of unemployment. Studying informal employment in the youth labour market is very important. Since a significant number of young people are interested in it. For this work, education is not needed and study is sidelined. And this affects the educational level of the entire population.

It is also worth noting that a special role in the employment of young people is occupied by the bodies of the employment service, labor exchanges and state authorities. They all promote youth employment through various programmes to support young professionals in the labour market.

And in conclusion, I would like to note that the unemployment of young people leads not only to economic problems, but also to demographic ones, as the standard of living of the population decreases. It is necessary to work purposefully with young people, which will be adapted to increase their level of competitiveness in the labor market. It is possible to solve the problem of unemployment, but this must be approached comprehensively and carefully. It is necessary to orient young people to stable earnings and motivate them to professional activities.

 

References:

  1. Babintsev V.P., Kovrizhnykh Yu.V., Reutov E.V. Sociology of youth. - Belgorod: CONSTANT, 2008. – 217 P.
  2. Federal State Statistics Service [Electronic Resource]: Access Mode: https://www.gks.ru/labor_market_employment_salaries.
  3. Burganova L.A., Nurieva E.M. Youth in the informal labor market. Access Mode: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/molodezh-na-neformalnom-rynke-truda.
  4. RANEPA. [Electronic Resource]: Access Mode: https://www.rbc.ru/society/17/10/2018/5bbdb02d9a79479a79d49c30.

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