Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 2(130)
Рубрика журнала: Экономика
INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IS A FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ECONOMY OF MODERN PRODUCTION IN UZBEKISTAN
The article discusses the issues of stable development of the economy of Uzbekistan on the basis of a solid structural and innovative potential. Innovative renewal and economic development is the main priority for the development of the Republic of Uzbekistan. The issues of maintaining and increasing the competitiveness of the national economy based on the development of the knowledge economy. The fundamental factor of the country's innovative economy at the present stage of state development is the formation of an environment for the development of innovations.
Keywords: innovation, innovative activity, efficiency, implementation, innovative development, creativity, innovative business, interpretation.
Intensive innovative development of all sectors of the economy and social sphere is of paramount importance in our republic on the basis of innovative ideas, developments and technologies.
It serves to improve the regulatory framework of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan for the innovative development of the economy of Uzbekistan.
Innovation is recognized as a top priority by countries around the world. In other words, one of the most important factors in accelerating the development and socio-economic development of society is the implementation of an effective innovation policy, the introduction of new advanced technologies, new forms of management and labor management, as well as major inventions based on scientific and technological progress.
So, let's explain the concept of innovation and innovation as follows. “Innovation” is not a synonym for “innovation”, but the process of introducing innovations in the form of new knowledge and approaches. From this explanation, it follows that "innovation" is a classification, not a type or area of activity. There will be no innovation, because any activity and any industry will innovate (such as knowledge, technology, applications, approaches) to achieve a result that is very demanding (for example, social, market, defense) can be innovative.
Innovation means new ideas (technologies, products, new lifestyles, education, management, labor, service, science, information). Innovation is an activity that ultimately leads to the creation of products, services, production facilities, forms of management, creation or improvement of existing types of technologies. It includes the processes of creating, mastering and widespread introduction of innovations.
Innovation is a key and necessary condition for ensuring the competitiveness of production and higher education, maintaining and maintaining its position in the world, as well as increasing productivity, ultimately, the productivity of both higher education and industry and the economy as a whole. Innovation management is the main management function in relation to an innovation process or activity - organization, standardization, planning, coordination, control and regulation. Accelerated introduction of innovations, first of all, requires a comprehensive modernization of existing universities. Innovative entrepreneurship involves the search for new ways to rationalize and focus on resources, the development of new combinations of production, the development of new markets and the creation of new products.
Risk-based foresight and strategic management are integral parts of entrepreneurship. Therefore, innovative entrepreneurship is becoming a factor in the development of modern production. In our opinion, in order to obtain good results and results of innovative entrepreneurial activity, universities should have information about the external factors of the macroelement, that is, feedback. This information can be generated in the risk management system during the strategic audit.
Different challenges have been identified in the academic study of university innovation while continuing to interpret the key concepts used in this area. The main reason for this is that, first of all, the concept of "innovative activity" and especially "innovative activity in higher education" is relatively new. In the scientific literature, the concept of "innovation" is a completely new or improved scientific development based on new ideas created in the field of science.
Education is now becoming transnational under the influence of economic liberalization and globalization, both directly and indirectly. These trends can neither change the educational process in education, nor bring it to a fundamentally new level and horizon of progress.
Every modern university requires three components - factors, tools and technologies. Using these three components, you can only start the educational process and create a specific market and services for training and education of specialists.
To support the learning process, three components must meet a number of requirements:
- the required number of training hours, that is, its quantitative expression, which allows not only to organize the educational process, but also to increase the volume of training in the future;
- the proper quality of service factors, facilities and technologies, i.e. optimal conditions for use in the educational process;
- time and place - all the components that can be used in the learning process are in a limited space at the same time.
Have a person or a group of persons (authorized persons) responsible for the use of factors, tools and technologies of educational services.
There should be a full-fledged focal point for making managerial decisions regarding the level of participation of components in the educational process. The coordination center relies on the innovative potential of the university, and the innovative potential of the university depends on the perception of innovation by the organization. In turn, this is a complex indicator, which depends on the following factors: personality-psychological, internal or structural and external.
In addition, it is possible to identify and complicate the implementation of innovative activities in the organizational, managerial and socio-psychological spheres.
The effectiveness of the innovative activity of social subjects (individuals, groups, communities) is largely determined by the innovative environment in society.
Today, few people study the impact of positive and negative factors in assessing the expected results of innovative projects in higher education. Research on this issue shows that the effectiveness of innovative projects depends on project management. Based on this, a successful project team was created.
An effective innovation team understands its time constraints and is fully responsible for its implementation, the team has developed clear team criteria, and this similarity is largely determined by the goals of the project.
External orientation of the community.
Focusing on the end result of the project will help the team maintain its resilience without risking separation from the broader organizational strategy and ultimately build a successful innovative team. The diversity of the team is its strength. It can be seen that the skills of staff in performing these tasks have been improved through a combination of skills. The team must be creative, constructive and collaborative.
He must be willing to share ideas and information, work together to solve problems and adapt to changing circumstances. The team must be able to communicate effectively. The "paradox" of corporate understanding plays an important role in the innovation team. One of the most striking manifestations of this is the collective belief in the need for group interaction even after activity.
The individual psychological characteristics of each member of the innovation team (in all three groups, but with different accents) must correspond to the set of qualities necessary for effective innovation. In particular, it is intellectuality, leadership, initiative, communication skills, responsibility (sense of responsibility), persistence.
The leader has a great influence on the effectiveness of the innovation team. He must strengthen team cohesion with his leadership skills, constantly reminding him of the goals and importance of the project, encouraging and guiding him to the best possible result. At the same time, authoritarian or administrative command is not allowed. Since the status of a member of the innovation team is high in the hierarchy of positions, not by the level of education, but by the value of the ideas presented, the level of creativity and variability of thinking.
The innovator has always been a separate person. In this case, we need to consider the psychology of personality in terms of their ability to innovate. Therefore, the main problem of innovative psychology is the theoretical and experimental substantiation of the mechanisms, forms and methods of psychological study of the creative potential of an individual and the provision of psychological comfort for effective innovation. It can be assumed that talent or creativity in innovation is a natural trait that only a few people possess.
In addition, other factors affect human innovation. For example, the psychology of innovation emphasizes the following relationship: workers with less experience in new things work slower than workers with more experience.
In conclusion, we would like to note that the simultaneous combination of characteristics inherent in the creator-innovator is observed in only a small number of people in relation to homogeneous, professional, demographic, gender, age, educational, ethnic, cultural or confessional-ethnic groups. As a rule, the share of such creators in the total number of groups is 10-12%. In addition, such personnel are usually not easy to manage and may have problems with them. Innovation is a social phenomenon. It finds expression in the community and must work together to make this happen.
Criteria and indicators of innovative activity in scientific institutions and higher educational institutions are proved by the fact that innovative entrepreneurship is a factor in the development of higher education.
A tendency to create new risks for innovative entrepreneurial behavior and a characteristic of general risk options are characteristic.
Today, various organizational forms of innovative entrepreneurship are developing in the world as an innovative factor of socio-economic development. The acceleration of modern socio-economic development is largely associated with the effectiveness of the innovation process. In turn, the effectiveness of the innovation process is determined by the reliability of the organization of innovative business and innovative entrepreneurship. The benefits of innovative entrepreneurship require the implementation of innovative ideas, the pursuit of new projects, and adequate organizational mechanisms for processing.
In the decree of the head of state "On Approval of the Strategy for Innovative Development of the Republic of Uzbekistan for 2019-2021", special attention is paid to improving the quality of human capital, which is an important factor that determines the level of the country's competitiveness in the international arena and innovative development.
The main goal of the strategy is the development of human capital, and its main task is to enter Uzbekistan by 2030 into the top 50 countries of the world according to the Global Innovation Index.
It is planned to improve the quality of all levels of education, expand its scope, and by training qualified personnel will be brought in line with the needs of the economy. Particular attention is paid to the creation of sustainable infrastructure, the development of industry and the acceleration of innovation for the sustainable development of innovative business and innovative entrepreneurship. The introduction of innovations affects the welfare of society, therefore the benefits of innovative entrepreneurship are important to the development of innovative potential. Through special projects, UNDP supports the implementation of innovative ideas among young people, also the introduction of "blockchain" technologies, provides expert support in the development of legislation and regulatory mechanisms that stimulate the active introduction of innovations in "The higher the level of innovation, the higher the GDP indicators".
The main task of analyzing the country's innovative potential was the Global Index of Innovative Development. The Global Innovation Index is a global study and its accompanying ranking of countries in the world in terms of innovation development.
In the course of studying the state of the level of development of innovations in Uzbekistan in this rating, areas that need to be improved were identified. Among them, improving the education system and developing human capital; development of science, ingenuity and technology transfer; improving the system of financing innovative activities; development of competition and reduction of administrative barriers; development of infrastructure and information and communication technologies.
In conclusion, based on the data obtained above, the main directions of the Strategy for innovative development were developed. At the same time, the mission of this strategy is to develop human capital, which determines the level of a country's competitiveness in the world arena and its innovative progress.
- Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan dated April 6, 2010 "On measures to further increase financial stability and enhance the investment activity of the banking system" No. PP-1317.
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