Статья опубликована в рамках: LVI Международной научно-практической конференции «История, политология, социология, философия: теоретические и практические аспекты» (Россия, г. Новосибирск, 02 мая 2022 г.)
Секция: Философские проблемы образования
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SPIRITUAL AND MORAL EDUCATION OF STUDENTS OF GENERAL EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS THROUGH THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHARITY
The article is devoted to the study of the role of charity in the spiritual and moral education of students of educational institutions. Charity is considered as an important socially significant phenomenon, a priority area of educational work.
Keywords: charity, spiritual and moral education, society, morality.
Mercy is often the subject of discussion, widely discussed in the scientific community, but its socio-philosophical interpretation has not been fully developed over the centuries.
In existential philosophy, mercy is considered in the context of a moral value that has a significant creative orientation. Mercy in the understanding of existentialists also acts as a way for people to comprehend their life purpose, it is an internal quality that mediates the selfless doing of good.
Despite the fact that some foreign studies are characterized by a biological approach to mercy, based on the innate nature of the feeling of mercy and its connection with the functioning of certain parts of the brain; The most widespread social approach, according to which mercy is an acquisition in the course of the formation of human society, the development of sympathy and the desire to help another.
Religious consideration of mercy in the context of “love for one’s neighbor, understanding and forgiveness, a priori assuming a good judgment about one’s neighbor” and imperatively prescribing to do better with every person than simple justice requires” [3, p. 228]
In the dictionary D.N. Ushakov's mercy is seen as a willingness out of compassion to help someone who needs it .
Widespread definition of mercy is as “compassionate love, heartfelt participation in the lives of the weak and needy (the sick, the wounded, the elderly, the needy, etc.); an active manifestation of mercy - various kinds of help, charity, etc. " [1, p. 113].
In the works of A.Yu. Gubanova, T.M. Gubanova quotes the Monk Isaac the Syrian about mercy: “Mercy is the opposite of justice. Justice is the equalization of the exact measure: because it gives to everyone what he has achieved, and in retribution does not allow inclination to one side or partiality. But mercy is sorrow, aroused by grace, and sympathetically bows to everyone: whoever is worthy of evil, he does not repay (with evil), and whoever is worthy of good, he fills him with excess” [2, p. 69].
Mercy is a very important socially significant phenomenon, which is recognized not only within the framework of the ethical norms of morality and morality of the peoples of the Russian Federation, but also at the state level. So, in accordance with the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 03.05.2012 N 573 (as amended on 11/19/2021) “On the establishment of the Order of the Holy Great Martyr Catherine and the insignia “For good deed”, citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens known for their high spiritual and moral position and mercy are awarded foreign states for an outstanding contribution to peacekeeping, humanitarian and charitable activities, the preservation of cultural heritage .
The category of mercy is reflected in a number of federal laws. For example, the Federal Law of August 22, 1995 N 151-FZ (as amended on July 1, 2021) “On emergency rescue services and the status of rescuers” contains Article 3 “Basic principles for the activities of emergency rescue services and rescuers”. According to the article, “the main principles of the activities of emergency rescue services (along with the rest), emergency rescue units and rescuers are: the principle of humanism and mercy, providing for the priority of saving lives and preserving people’s health, protecting the natural environment in case of emergencies”[6, p. 18].
In the works of S.M. Kargapoltsev expressed a modern understanding of mercy as “a moral category associated with personal and national freedom, trust in people, justice, honor and dignity, which is part of the basic Russian national values, in the program context of the development of an educational strategy that serves as a humanitarian basis for the formation of students' value ideas about morality and, thus, representing the most important target dominant of personality-oriented education and pedagogy of humanity"[3, p. 229]. In the light of everyday phenomena of modern reality, one of the conditions not only for the spiritual and moral education of students, but also for the humanization of education is the category of mercy.
Researchers are unanimous in considering mercy as “the most important, if not fundamental, condition of human coexistence” [2, p. 68].
Spiritual and moral aspects, which include the concept of "mercy", are enshrined in the Federal State Educational Standard in the requirements for the structure of the main educational program of basic general education.
Therefore, it can be argued that the modern system of spiritual and moral education of the younger generation is faced with the goal of forming among students, including the idea of mercy, its significance in human society.
The tasks for modern teachers are:
- “To reveal the concept of “mercy” from the point of view of personal interaction between people.
- To acquaint students of educational organizations with the historical experience of mercy in our country.
- To reveal the concept of "mercy" within the national culture of Russia.
- To create conditions for the formation of mercy and moral values of the future citizen, the education of patriotism.
- Stimulate children's cognitive interest in the field of spiritual and moral values" [3, p. 229].
The need for spiritual and moral education, in particular the new component of the personality, is due to a whole range of such phenomena as the loss of moral guidelines, various kinds of conflicts, violation of parent-child relationships, social stratification of the population, school bullying, deviant behavior of children and adolescents, the need to create a unified educational spaces for healthy children and children with developmental disabilities who have the status of limited health opportunities.
One of the modern forms of work on spiritual and moral education is project activity. Within six months, with the participation of members of the "Orthodox Volunteers" activists, the project "Philosophy of Mercy: the earthly path of Jesus Christ" was implemented in the Belgorod region. More than 10 municipal and regional institutions became beneficiaries of the project (GBU "Center for the preparation and post-boarding support of graduates "Spread your wings", GBU "Prokhorovsky center for the development and socialization of the child", GBU "Novooskol special general education boarding school", shelter of the social center for rehabilitation "Mercy and care”, pre-trial detention center No. 3, several secondary schools and others).
Holidays are of great importance in educating the younger generation's cognitive interest in spiritual and moral values. For Belgorod students, one of these holidays is the anniversary of the founding of the socio-theological faculty of Belgorod State University. So, for example, the 20th anniversary of the founding of the socio-theological faculty was marked by the opening of the nominal auditorium of the Hieromartyr Nikodim, Bishop of Belgorod, the visit of students and guests of the holiday to the library-museum of N. N. Strakhov, the church-chapel of St. Evgenia of Rome, spiritual and educational center named after Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna Macarius (Bulgakov).An integral part of the events is a discussion about works of mercy, about what the Savior did during the days of his earthly life, as well as about the modern social service of the Church, the activities of the Orthodox Volunteers asset, created as a result of cooperation between the Spiritual and Educational Center named after Metropolitan Macarius of Moscow and Kolomna (Bulgakov) of the Institute of Social Sciences and Mass Communications of the National Research University of Belgorod State University and the Marfo-Mariinsky Sisterhood of Mercy in Belgorod.
Thus, mercy is a very important socially significant phenomenon. Mercy as a phenomenon and quality of a person makes it possible to create a favorable educational environment, raise the level of children's responsibility for themselves and others, form the right attitude towards socially unprotected segments of the population, form socially approved behavior, and fulfill themselves in society.
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