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Статья опубликована в рамках: LXII Международной научно-практической конференции «Экспериментальные и теоретические исследования в современной науке» (Россия, г. Новосибирск, 24 февраля 2021 г.)

Наука: Науки о Земле

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Библиографическое описание:
Malgeldiev D.N., Bekenov B.N. BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF THE SOILS OF THE ILE-ALATAU SNNP ON THE TERRITORY OF WHICH THE APPLE VARIETY MALUS NIEDZWETZKYANA GROWS // Экспериментальные и теоретические исследования в современной науке: сб. ст. по матер. LXII междунар. науч.-практ. конф. № 2(56). – Новосибирск: СибАК, 2021. – С. 68-72.
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BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF THE SOILS OF THE ILE-ALATAU SNNP ON THE TERRITORY OF WHICH THE APPLE VARIETY MALUS NIEDZWETZKYANA GROWS

Malgeldiev Damir Nurbekovich

General Director of the Ile-Alatau National Nature Park,

Kazakhstan, Almaty

Bekenov Berik Nesipbaevich

Senior Researcher of the Ile-Alatau National Nature Park,

Kazakhstan, Almaty

It is known that in the early 19th century, an outstanding public figure and amateur local historian Vladislav Yefimovich Nedzvetsky discovered a wild tree with beautiful purple apples in the foothills of the Tien Shan.

He gave the collected samples to the German botanist George Dick, who bred this species in Kazakhstan, made its first complete description and attached it to the catalog under the name "Nedzvetskaya apple tree" in honor of the discoverer.

In the following years, many breeders and I. V. Michurin conducted research on this red apple with interest. In the 30s of the last century, the decorative variety "Pionerka"was bred at the Pavlovskaya experimental station under the leadership of Michurin. As a result of hybridization (crossing) of the Nedzvetsky apple tree and the wild "purple Ranetka", scientists received red-flowered varieties: "Pepin Pink", "red standard", "Komsomolets", "Belfler" (tricolor, purple, red).

According to experts, "Pionerka" and "Komsomolets" are resistant to winter hardiness and are ideal for growing in the North-Western region of Russia. Most descendants of the variety "Ana" are characterized by large pink flowers, differ in the roots and shape of the fruits. A medium-sized fruit tree grows quickly. Grown mature species reach a height of 7-10 meters (there is also a species of wild specimens that grow up to 18 m). The natural shape of the trunk is widespread, rounded, in the form of a ball, with a diameter of more than 4 m.

The skeletal branches and trunk of young trees are dark purple or red-brown in color. The bark of adult plants is slightly wrinkled, brownish-gray. During the flowering period, the leaves turn green, and only the lower part remains purple. Fully opened leaves are dark green or purplish-red with a reddish tinge, with a dark purple tint. The flowers are medium-sized (about 4 cm in diameter), the flowering period is short-no more than two weeks, in mid-May-early June.

A well-developed root system ensures the survival of seedlings in a new place without problems (both in spring and autumn). The red apple tree Malus niedzwetzkyana bears fruit in the tenth year after planting.

The red apple tree in question ripens completely from September to October. Fruits are single, small, average weight – 20-25 g, maximum – 75 g; rounded or rounded-conical. The fruit is soft, dense, beautiful pink-purple color, sweet.

In our state national park in winter, these apple trees serve as good food for animals and birds. According to experts and experienced gardeners, this variety of red apple (Malus niedzwetzkyana) is unpretentious in care and meets standard agricultural techniques. Propagation methods are carried out by seeds or sowing, cuttings (vegetatively).

Purpose: To study the biological activity of the soils of the Ile-Alatau SNNP on the territory of which the apple variety Malus niedzwetzkyana grows.

Objectives: To study the ecological and trophic groups of microorganisms in the soil and to study the agrochemical state of the soils of the Ile-Alatau State National Natural Park;

Research methods and equipment: Koch method, Gram method, diffuse method, re-injection method, autoclave, thermostat, light microscope.

The results obtained: 1. The quantitative indicator of the number of oligotrophs in the soil was determined in the upper nursery of 3,8*106 CFU / g, and the total number of actinomycetes in the upper nursery (4,0 ± 0,14)*106 CFU / g in the soil.

Fungi make up 30% of the total number of microorganisms in the soil, i.e. (1,1 ± 0,12) * 102 CFU / g.

The study showed that the quantitative composition of the main ecological and trophic groups of soil microorganisms of the upper and lower forests of the Aksai branch of the RSE "Ile-Alatau State National Natural Park" is different;

2. Chemical characteristics of soils in forest nurseries of the Aksai branch of "Ile-Alatau State National Natural park": the content of mobile phosphorus in the upper nursery in the layer of 0-20 cm by the Machigin method - 108 mg / kg (very high); the total phosphorus content - 0,340% (high), the total content of potassium by the Machigin method - 360 mg / kg (high); humus content by Turin's method - 7,44% (high) indicates the average content of humus in the A horizon, the content of calcium in mEq / 100 g soil 24,50 (very high), the contents of magnesium mEq / 100 g soil of 1,47 (average); it was found that the content of easily hydrolyzable nitrogen in mg / kg of soil is -47,6 (very high);

Chemical indicators of the soils of the branch of the forest nursery of the lower nursery of the Aksai branch of the RSE "Ile-Alatau State National Natural Park": the content of mobile phosphorus by the Machigin method - 40 mg / kg (above); the total phosphorus was found to be 0.212% (high); the total potassium was found to be 150 mg / kg (low) by the Machigin method; The humus content was determined by the Tyurin method - 2.89% (low) and refers to dark brown soil; The calcium content mEq / 100 g was found to be 10.78 (high) in the soil; magnesium content mEq / 100 g. 2.94 (above); it was found that the content of easily hydrolyzable nitrogen in mg / kg of soil in the lower nursery is -28.0 (high) [1-6].

External morphological representation of the Nedzvetsky red apple growing on the Medeu, Aksai, and Turgen branches in the photos below (fig. 1-3).

 

Figure 1. Nedzvetsky red apple Aksay branch Aksay Forestry 15.10.2020

 

Figure 2. Turgen branch Turgen Forestry Nedzvetsky red apple. 20.10.2020

 

Figure 3. Turgen branch Turgen Forestry Nedzvetsky red apple. 20.10.2020

 

References:

  1. Burkutbaeva T.N., Fokhridina L.I., Tastanbekova L.K. The properties of fungi isolated from patients with fungal infections of upper respiratory tract. Problemy meditsinskoy mikologii, 2006, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 37-39 (in Russ.).].       
  2. Derzhavin L.M., Samokhvalov S.G., Sokolova N.V., Orlova A.N., Khabararova K.A., Sokolova Yu.V., Mavlyanov A.A., Kondratyeva G.K. Determination of mobile compounds of phosphorus and potassium according to the Machigin method in the modification of TsINAO // GOST 26205-91.-1993. -S.3-7.
  3. Nosov S.I., Ovchinnikov V.A., Klopotovsky A.P., Kokurina E.I., Stepanenko L.M., Witte E.V., Dobrovolsky G.V., Orlov D.S., Vorobyeva L.A., Grindel N.M., Samokhvalov S.G., Prizhukova V.G., Ruzhitskaya S.S., Pivovarova T.M., Mareeva E.V., Len E.V. Methods for determining gross phosphorus and gross potassium // GOST 26261-84.-1985.-P.4-10.
  4. Derzhavin L.M., Samokhvalov S.G., Sokolova N.V., Orlova A.N., Khabararova K.A., Sokolova Yu.V., Mavlyanov A.A., Kondratyeva G.K. Determination of mobile compounds of phosphorus and potassium by the Machigin method in the modification of TsINAO // GOST 26205-91.-1993.-3 p.
  5. Nosov S.I., Ovchinnikov V.A., Klopotovsky A.P., Kokurina E.I., Stepanenko L.M., Witte E.V., Dobrovolsky G.V., Orlov D.S., Vorobyeva L.A., Grindel N.M., Samokhvalov S.G., Prizhukova V.G., Ruzhitskaya S.S., Pivovarova T.M., Mareeva E.V., Len E.V. Methods for determining gross phosphorus and gross potassium // GOST 26261-84.-1985.-5 p.
  6. Nosov S.I., Ovchinnikov V.A., Klopotovsky A.P., Kokurina E.I., Frieva O.A., Stepanenko L.M., Dobrovolsky G.V., Orlov D.S., Vorobyova L.A., Grindel N.M., Samokhvalov S.G., Prizhukova V.G., Glichev A.V., Tsibizov N.I., Ruzhitskaya S.S., Pivovarova T.M., Mareeva E .IN.; O. G. Mosolova; Leibchik L.G. Methods for determining total nitrogen // GOST 26107-84.- 2013.-P.5-6.
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