Телефон: 8-800-350-22-65
WhatsApp: 8-800-350-22-65
Telegram: sibac
Прием заявок круглосуточно
График работы офиса: с 9.00 до 18.00 Нск (5.00 - 14.00 Мск)

Статья опубликована в рамках: LXXV Международной научно-практической конференции «Актуальные вопросы экономических наук и современного менеджмента» (Россия, г. Новосибирск, 04 октября 2023 г.)

Наука: Экономика

Секция: Теория современного менеджмента

Скачать книгу(-и): Сборник статей конференции

Библиографическое описание:
Temerbulatova Zh., Zhidebekkyzy A., Sagiyeva R. DEVELOPMENT STAGE CONCEPT FOR THE WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF KAZAKHSTAN // Актуальные вопросы экономических наук и современного менеджмента: сб. ст. по матер. LXXV междунар. науч.-практ. конф. № 10(58). – Новосибирск: СибАК, 2023. – С. 41-48.
Проголосовать за статью
Дипломы участников
У данной статьи нет


Temerbulatova Zhansaya

Ph.D., Senior Lecturer, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University,

Kazakhstan, Almaty

Zhidebekkyzy Aknur

Ph.D., Associate Professor Al-Farabi Kazakh National University,

Kazakhstan, Almaty

Sagiyeva Rimma

Doctor of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor Al-Farabi Kazakh National University,

Kazakhstan, Almaty


Historically, landfill disposal has been the main method of waste disposal in Kazakhstan. This has led to issues such as limited landfill capacity, inadequate waste handling, and potential environmental and health risks. The article aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the waste management system in Kazakhstan and identify suitable optimization measures and recommendations for promoting a circular economy. The development stage concept approach was applied to analyze the waste management system's effectiveness. Seven components of the waste management system and 53 related sub-components were assessed, each of which was assigned one of the five development stages. The results showed that almost all components are at 1 and 2 development stages. However, Kazakhstan's commitment to addressing waste management issues and implementing sustainable practices points to a positive direction for the future.


Keywords: waste management, development stage concept, Kazakhstan, waste generation, recycling, circular economy.



Waste generation is a major problem worldwide. According to a World Bank report, global garbage volumes could increase by 70% by 2050 if significant measures are not taken.

The problem of waste management on a global scale is becoming more serious due to population growth, increasing levels of consumption and insufficient awareness of environmental responsibility. Unsustainable use of resources, poor recycling rates and landfill problems are common problems.

As for Kazakhstan, the country also faces the problem of waste management (WM). Some regions lack adequate waste collection, recycling and disposal systems. Often, waste is thrown into unprepared landfills, which leads to soil, water and air pollution.

However, Kazakhstan is taking steps to improve the situation in the field of waste management. In 2014, the Waste Recycling Law was adopted, which provides for the regulation of waste and stimulates the development of recycling infrastructure. Also, information campaigns and educational programs are being conducted in the country to increase the environmental awareness of the population.

But there is still a lot of work to be done to fully address the problem of waste management in Kazakhstan.

The purpose of the article is to assess the effectiveness of the waste management system (WMS) in Kazakhstan and identify suitable optimization measures and recommendations to promote the circular economy. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the waste management system is based on the approach called WMS development stage concept (WMS-DSC). This approach helps to define and analyze the requirements for the waste management system, which leads to a more efficient and optimized waste management process. Also, it takes into account the legislation and standards related to waste management, it provides a framework for making informed decisions at various stages of the development of a waste management system.


WMS-DSC consists of five development stages (Figure 1). Stage 1 represents the WMS with the worst performance and Stage 5 with the best performance. In other words, step 5 describes a functioning circular economy (CE). The lower the stage, the further the WMS is from the CE.


Figure 1. Short description of the five stages of the WMS-DSC (adopted from [1])


WMS is defined by seven WMS components and 53 related sub-components (Table 1). More information on WMS-DSC can be found in [1].

Data for analysis were collected from publicly available reports or government documents related to waste management and the circular economy. In addition, searches were made for scientific studies on the analysis of the WMS of Kazakhstan. Statistical data from the Bureau of National Statistics of the Agency for Strategic Planning and Reforms of the Republic of Kazakhstan were used [2]. Due to the fact that not all information could be found in the previously mentioned sources, articles from newspapers and information on websites were also integrated.

Results and Discussion

Table 1 visualizes the results of the analysis; if the cells are marked in dark blue, the subcomponent criteria are fully met; if they are white, then they are not completely fulfilled. All other combinations are equal to partially completed ones and are marked in blue. If the different stages of a subcomponent are indicated in blue or light blue, then an exact definition is not possible, and a range must be specified.

Table 1.

Analysis results for Kazakhstan


As can be seen from Table 1, the governance component is mostly in stages 2 to 3 for Kazakhstan. Waste management in Kazakhstan faces a number of challenges, but progress has also been made in recent years. On December 28, 2021, the Ministry of Ecology, Geology and Natural Resources signed an order approving the rules for managing municipal waste. The order outlines the rules for managing wastepaper and cardboard, plastic, glass containers, and mercury-containing waste [3]. Tasks related to WM and time-dependent, corresponding to the concept of waste, responsibilities of WM and interested parties are defined by law. Other laws relating to the management of construction and demolition waste (C&D) are in preparation. Thus, laws and regulations on WM exist, but numerous gaps need to be filled in order to establish CE, for example by implementing measures or tools to encourage recycling or introducing extended producer responsibility. Based on the fact that Kazakhstan, by the Order on approval of the list of waste types for disposal at landfills of various classes dated September 7, 2021, provided for a detailed nomenclature of waste types, indicated hazardous waste, and the places of their disposal, subcomponent G.3 was assigned to stage 3 [4].

Environmental control (including waste issues) is under the jurisdiction of the Committee for Environmental Regulation and Control of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan [5]. The mission of the Committee is to ensure the application of legislation and regulations in the field of environmental protection through regular inspections. Thus, the main conditions for control bodies, monitoring of WM activities and detection of violations of the rules are met, but it was not possible to determine the frequency of inspections and their effectiveness, therefore G.8 is partly related to steps 2-3.

The sector and market is between stages 2 and 3; also stages 1 to 4 are partly performed on separate sub-components. The results (Table 1) show that Collection and transport can be attributed to stages 1-2, since in Kazakhstan there is no separate collection at the source, and all types of waste are collected in one bin. A model project for source separation is planned in cities of republican significance. Moreover, although municipal solid waste collection is mainly carried out by the formal sector, the informal sector plays a significant role in waste collection in Kazakhstan. They are needed to fill collection gaps, for example, in rural areas, as well as to collect recyclables (plastic, metals, glass, etc.) separately.

Waste disposal is primarily classified as stage 2 (WD.1, WD.2 and WD.4) and stage 3 (WD.5), although various (but not all) criteria are also met in stage 3 for WD.1 and WD. 2. The resulting household and assimilated waste are completely disposed of in a controlled landfill. In connection with the introduction of landfill classes, it is allowed to bury non-hazardous household and recyclable waste (landfill class 1). But it is impossible to completely prevent the dumping of hazardous waste.

Currently, there are no waste incinerators for thermal or energy waste disposal in Kazakhstan, so the Energy recovery point is in the 1st stage. It was planned to open waste incinerators in 6 cities of Kazakhstan, but some projects have been suspended, others are under development. In Almaty, for example, proposals from potential investors are being considered and a suitable location for the plant is being considered. The planned project implementation period is 2027 [6].

The situation with Waste recycling is similar to Energy recovery. Most of the sub-components are in stage 1; however, for WR.4 and WR.6, stage 2 aspects are partially met. The collection of recyclables from households in Kazakhstan is carried out by the informal sector.

After analysis of Prevention and reuse, the results show different milestone attributions for each sub-component. PR.1 and PR.6 are at stage 1 due to the fact that there are no specific targets for the prevention of waste (e.g., food waste) and the Zero Waste Index (ZWI) for Kazakhstan is less than 0.05, which is an extremely low rate. ZWI describes the potential to replace primary materials with secondary resources through recycling and recovery. This low ZWI means that only a small amount of starting material is replaced [7].

The results of the analysis show a different classification of stages. Both Energy recovery and Waste recycling belong to stage 1. As for Waste recycling, little development towards the next stage can be assumed due to the planned activities. Collection and transport, Prevention and reuse are mainly in stage 2, but are also classified in stage 1 (CT.4, CT.5, PR.1 and PR.6). According to the results of WMS-DSC Governance, Sector and market, Waste disposal can be classified in stages 2 and 3 with a stronger trend towards stage 4.


The current Kazakhstan WMS is a linear economy that can be changed in the future by changing the paradigm to achieve CE. For this reason, structural changes are needed, which means, on the one hand, the division of tasks (e.g., public-private partnerships) and, on the other hand, the pooling of powers to make the tasks financially viable. Therefore, the integration and cooperation of public and private sectors is important.

It is necessary to develop and implement more efficient systems for the collection, sorting and processing of waste, as well as to improve legislation in this area. It is also important to continue to educate and inform the public about proper waste management practices and their impact on the environment.

For businesses, it is proposed to introduce a tax on plastic to reduce waste generation.

The joint efforts of government, business and citizens can help solve the problem of waste management and achieve a more sustainable future for Kazakhstan and the world.

Funding. This research was funded by the Science Committee of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Grant No. AP09259851).



  1. Campitelli, A., Kannengießer, J., Schebek, L. (2022). Approach to Assess the Performance of Waste Management Systems towards a Circular Economy: Waste Management System Development Stage Concept (WMS-DSC). MethodsX, 9, 101634.
  2. Bureau of National Statistics of the Agency for Strategic Planning and Reforms of the Republic of Kazakhstan https://stat.gov.kz/ru/
  3. On approval of the rules for municipal waste management (2021) https://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/V2100026341
  4. On approval of the list of types of waste for disposal at landfills of various classes (2021) https://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/V2100024280
  5. Committee for Environmental Regulation and Control of the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan https://www.gov.kz/memleket/entities/cerc?lang=ru
  6. LSM.kz (2022) Will waste incineration plants appear in Kazakhstan? https://lsm.kz/postroyat-li-v-kazahstane-musoroszhigatel-nye
  7. Zaman, A.U., Swapan, M.S.H. (2016). Performance evaluation and benchmarking of global waste management systems. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 114, 32–41
Удалить статью(вывести сообщение вместо статьи): 
Проголосовать за статью
Дипломы участников
У данной статьи нет

Оставить комментарий

Форма обратной связи о взаимодействии с сайтом
Этот вопрос задается для того, чтобы выяснить, являетесь ли Вы человеком или представляете из себя автоматическую спам-рассылку.