Статья опубликована в рамках: Научного журнала «Студенческий» № 29(115)
Рубрика журнала: Экономика
HOW TO EFFECTIVELY SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF SUPPORTING FAMILIES WHO HAVE LOST THEIR SOLE
As early as the 1970s, in order to solve the contradiction between population and economic development in our country, the "family planning" policy was promulgated. Fortunately, this policy has made a great contribution to the economic development of our country, and at the same time it also led to the family structure. The result of simplification. In recent years, due to the combined factors of family structure and accidents, the emergence of families who have lost one’s own alone and their number has shown an incredible increase, resulting in the intensification of the problem of adequate family protection, as well as some social root problems, such as It is said that the imperfect social support system has made the issue of old-age security for families who have lost their own family a difficult problem that cannot be ignored. Therefore, the problem that we urgently need to solve is the old-age security for families who have lost the only one.
Keywords: families who have lost their sole responsibility, pension problems, dilemmas.
1. The definition and status of families who lost their families
We have not found any authoritative explanations on how to define the concept of families who have lost their solemnity. However, we can all learn from the "Support System for Families Who Lost Only One Child" promulgated in 2001 that if the family loses only one child due to illness, traffic accidents, fires and other accidents, and it is satisfied that the parents no longer have children or have no adopted children during their lifetimes The family formed by the parents is called the family lost alone. Through reading a large number of other reference materials, we have learned that families who have lost their sole support can be roughly divided into two categories: one is the family that does not need to raise the only one by another generation, and the other is the family that needs to be raised by another generation.
2. Current status analysis of all aspects of families who have lost their sole
1) The status quo of families who lost their sole in Hohhot
(1). Economic aspects
One of the most important and most important reasons for the economic difficulties of families who lost only one child is that the death of their only child is accompanied by an increase in the age of the elderly who lost their one child. In the area investigated by our team-Hohhot City, in recent years, has proposed new reform measures on the support of families who have lost their sole. Specifically, in 2011, the new urban area of Hohhot City raised the subsidy standard for families who lost their sole responsibility, stipulating that as long as they are eligible families, they can enjoy the new treatment standard, that is, if they lose their families due to illness, traffic accidents, fires and other accidents. Families with only-children, and those whose parents no longer give birth or have no adopted children during their lifetime, can receive a subsidy of 140 yuan per person per month. This policy will continue until the death of both parents of the family. Although this system has raised the standard of subsidies for families who have lost their sole responsibility, an increase of only forty yuan is a drop in the bucket for them.
Nowadays, although some elderly people who have lost their only child tend to join or enter certain elderly care institutions to provide for the elderly, it is difficult for the elderly who have lost only one child to enter the elderly care facilities due to my country's special political system. Therefore, on the one hand, in the face of the departure of the only child and the rejection of old-age care facilities in the society, the group of elderly people who lost their own lives is left alone and helpless. On the other hand, with the increase of age, various physical indexes such as physiological function decline. In life, if there is a sudden illness but no one around can help or part of the life is difficult to take care of by the elderly alone The situation is particularly worrying. The problem that it is difficult for the elderly who have lost their independence to enter a support institution is real in our field research.
(3). Psychological aspect
Children are the spiritual support of parents and the hope of every parent in their lives. Parents’ trust and expectations for their children are difficult for non-parents to appreciate, especially for families with only one child. It is precisely because of this that the loss of a child is simply a bolt from the blue for parents, which will make parents miserable for a lifetime. Especially for families with only one child, the departure of the child is unacceptable for parents. And this kind of blow has time duration. Parents who have lost their soles will be in a state of depression for a long time, and they will be difficult to get rid of psychologically. It is difficult to return to normal life. Our Innovation Fund team encountered this situation with some parents in the new urban area of Hohhot. Among them, a pair of parents who lost their solemnity is extremely sensitive, and often our unintentional words will cause them to react cleanly.
3. How to effectively solve the pension problem of families who lost their sole
In our research site-Hohhot City, we put forward countermeasures and suggestions on how to effectively solve the problem of old-age care for families who lost only one. In May 2014, the Hohhot City Family Planning Commission took the Hui district as a pilot and carried out a trial implementation of the new policy. The policy was carried out based on the three aspects of political policy, economic assistance, and psychological counseling. of. The following is a detailed explanation of these three aspects.
1) Policy first
(1). Improve relevant laws and policies
The family planning policy is the root cause of the emergence of only one child. Therefore, the fundamental solution to the problem of the lack of independence is to implement the second child policy appropriately.
(2). Establish a professional psychological counseling agency
The central government and local governments have reasonably funded the construction of professional psychological counseling agencies to solve the psychological and emotional problems of the elderly from families who lost their families. The benefits of this are reflected in the following two aspects: First, the psychological counseling organization set up by the government is a non-profit organization, and its purpose is to solve the psychological problems of the elderly who have lost their children alone. It is the shadow of the elderly who have lost their children. , Rediscover the true meaning of life. Secondly, the specialized elderly care institutions established by the government and the existence of elderly care institutions in the market economy will give different psychological hints to the groups who have lost their independence. The elderly who have lost their independence will feel the government's care for them, and they are willing to enter the institution to "treat". "For myself, relieve the pain caused by the loss of the only child. In this pilot project in the Huimin District of Hohhot, the government has funded the establishment of a special psychological counseling agency in the community, and used the power of new media to help the elderly from families who lost their sole return to a normal life.
(3). Caring about daily life
In terms of life, because of the establishment of a special psychological counseling organization, the old people who lost their independence can live here together. The same experience will make them feel sorry for each other, support each other, promote each other, help each other, and work through every difficulty in their hearts.
In terms of economy, the government should continue to follow the principle of earmarked funds and establish an old-age support fund for families who have lost the only one. This requires the central government and local governments to work together to raise funds to increase the benefits of pension insurance for families who have lost only one. There are also specific regulations in our research sites: if a family with only one child is lost due to accidents such as illness, traffic accidents, fires, etc., and a family composed of parents whose parents no longer give birth or have no adopted children during their lifetime, as long as the following are met Three conditions: First, the place of household registration belongs to the Huimin District of Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region; second, the date of birth of the resident ID card is later than January 1, 1993; third, the woman must be 49 years old. You can receive a monthly pension of 200 yuan per person.
2) Family contributions from social organizations
Our country is a socialist market economy. We cannot rely solely on the government for everything. The market should also contribute to providing support for families who have lost their own family. As far as we know, there are some social forces that have reached out to help groups who have lost their independence.
- Financial aid
There are many third-sector organizations in society, also called non-governmental organizations—NGOs. For example, the China Foundation for Poverty Alleviation, Soong Ching Ling Foundation, Toyota Education Fund, Red Cross and other organizations, their rescue scope is relatively wide, but usually They will try their best to help if they can reach it, mainly based on economic relief, and the specific form is financial support. When necessary, they will personally send people to conduct home visits and rescue, and bring enough funds and daily necessities.
- Social worker intervention
Various foundations and other non-profit organizations in the society also recruit young volunteers extensively, and use social forces to the greatest possible extent to help the elderly who have lost their families, and use the vitality of young people to infect the old people out of the shadows. Give more love and warmth psychologically.
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